Influence of Industry 4.0 on Asia: Motives and Cultures in the Post-COVID-19 Era

Influence of Industry 4.0 on Asia: Motives and Cultures in the Post-COVID-19 Era

Xuan Tran (University of West Florida, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8678-5.ch007
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Abstract

As the challenge of big data impacts how we understand cultural differences, a motive-integrated model of culture is becoming an effective strategy to study current culture divergence by the fourth industrial revolution called “Industry 4.0.” This study examines the impact of Industry 4.0 with COVID-19 vaccines on motives and cultures of the world and Asia in the post-COVID-19 era. Structure equation modelling has been conducted on the data in 38 countries during the period of 2006-2021. Findings indicate that Industry 4.0 has enhanced the achievement motive in the reactive culture and the power motive in the multi-linear culture, but it has decreased the affiliation motive in the linear active culture. In addition, Industry 4.0 has enhanced the gross domestic product per capita (GDP) in the linear active and reactive cultures, but it has decreased the GDP in the multi-linear cultures. Finally, Industry 4.0 has made the power and affiliation motives in Asia decrease, but it has increased the achievement motive in Asia.
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Introduction

Failure to examine the effects of industrial revolutions on motives and cultures creates critical issues in maintaining and developing cultures in the world. Arguably, World War 1 and 2 could be attributed in part to the negative impacts of the first two industrial revolutions on human motives and cultures. Motives are concerns over starting, maintaining, and directing (1) evaluated performance of human activities (achievement motive), (2) the means of influencing a person (power motive), and (3) positive affective relationships with another person (affiliation motive) (McClelland, 1985). In this study, motives are specific implicit behavior, so they are different from needs and traits. Needs generate response tendency and traits are the surface of motives (McClelland, 1951). Cultures are the growth of national personality traits (Lynn, 1991). Traits are the motives’ channels (Winter, John, Stewart, Klohnen, and Duncan, 1998), so cultures are the channels of motives. Culture or national character is “relatively enduring personality characteristics and patterns that are modal among adult members of the society” (Inkeles & Levinson, 1954,1969). In sum, how cultures and motives that are consistent variables over time will be changed by the fourth industrial revolution or Industry 4.0 in the world and Asia in this study.

To thoroughly analyze the strengths of Industry 4.0, the study will examine how the preceding three industrial revolutions affected motives and cultures. The first industrial revolution in 1784 changed agriculture to industry based on the discovery of coal. The sedentary human society became diverged into urban and country society. The human motive of power in agriculture was enhanced in urban cities. Cultures are mostly the polychronic culture in which people pursue multiple goals simultaneously and let one project influence another. They solicit first-hand information from people and use body language. The second industrial revolution in 1867 transformed industry from mechanic to electricity based on the discovery of gas. Every high-power country is searching for rich natural resources to enhance power resulting in the two World Wars in 1914-1918 and 1939-1945. The third industrial revolution transformed industry from electricity to nuclear based on the discovery of uranium. The polychronic culture has been changed to a monochronic culture in which people just do one thing at one time. Thus, the affiliation motive focusing on the institution rules and avoiding human critics is very important. Then international trades among countries were based on the competitive advantage or excellent performance. The achievement motive is the key in each country. The two world superpowers US and Russia competed in technology in the Cold War 1947-1991 by the three implicit motives: achievement, power, and affiliation (McClelland & Winter, 1969, 1971). In sum, the first three industrial revolutions focused on discovering, controlling, and distributing natural resources for the country.

The fourth industrial revolution called Industry 4.0 has transformed industry from physical to virtual based on the Internet of things and automation with renewable resources. The most significant discovery from Industry 4.0 in 2021 is the invention of COVID-19 vaccines and their impact is certainly very critical to human lives represented by motives, cultures, and economy.

Implicit motives of people or countries including achievement, power and affiliation will operate human behaviors through the three channels called linear active, multi-linear active and reactive cultures under the impacts of COVID-19 vaccines. For example, Vietnam, China, and Japan representing the reactive culture should create environments for people to perform their excellent services during the post of COVID-19 era. Vietnam was ranked as the second top country in the world to control COVID-19 cases. China was ranked as the frontier in producing COVID-19 vaccines. Japan was ranked as the top achievement of economics under the control of COVID-19.

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