Informational Competencies

Informational Competencies

José Poças Rascão (Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 18
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3479-3.ch119

Abstract

The objective of this work is to contribute to a reflection on the emergence of the concept of informational competences. The information and knowledge society need a science that studies the informational competences and processes of its construction, transmission, and use, based on the aggregation of existing literature. The structure of the article synthesizes the existing academic works, seeking to generate new knowledge. The results can be used to integrate informational competencies in the different sciences and or areas of knowledge. The article first seeks to identify the skills and the apparent processes and then focuses more in detail on some of them.
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Introduction

The information at the end of the twentieth century became an important factor of production, although it was always present in the history of mankind, but it did not always have the same importance as it has in the post-capitalist society. In the Middle Ages people lived from what the earth produced, cultivatedit and lived according to the productive cycles of the seasons.

The craftsman lived and had the workshop in the same place. It produced the works according to customers ' requests, producing the final products (their art). With the Industrial Revolution, the worker began to live in function of the clock and the completion of tasks, one after another, until the whistle of the factory announced the end of the work day. The worker did not need to know what would be done with the result of his work, that is, what was the final product. The worker lost the relationship between the work performed (production) and its result.

Marx separated the worker from the product of his work, at the factory, having invented the work as something separate from the worker. The notion of product and production began to belong to the owners of the factories. In the factory it became necessary to control the production on a large scale, and for this, The production administration was invented. The scientific administration developed the conditions of productivity in an unprecedented way and prepared the mechanization of the tasks before performed by parts of the human body. At the limit, manufacturing production could be fully mechanized and dispense with all workers, minus supervisors. Someone would have to control the machines.

Focus and Approach Methodology

As for its nature, the research is qualitative, since it does not claim to quantify events or privileges the statistical study. Its focus is to obtain descriptive data, that is, the incidence of topics of interest in two fields, the information Sciences and the Sciences andmpresarial. Consequently, about the extremities, the research is exploratory in nature and descriptive, as the technique used, is categorised, consensually, as a study of direct documentation, which provides for the consultation of sources Related to the study in different media, printed or electronic.

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Background: Fundamental Concepts

Information and Knowledge

Although the terms information and knowledge are used very often, they are not the same thing. Information is not the same as data, although the two words are often confused, so it is understood that the subtle distinction between these concepts is essential. Data do not convey meaning or meaning of facts, images or sounds, since they lack relational elements indispensable to the establishment of a complete meaning, lacking an internal relational structure for a cognitive purpose.

This structure is one of the attributes of information. Data becomes information when its creator adds meaning (Davenport and Prusak, 1998). Wiliam G. Zikmund (2000, p.19) defines knowledge as “the mixture of information, experience and understanding that provides a framework that can be applied to the assessment of new information or new situations”. Information “feeds” knowledge. Knowledge can thus be defined as a person's ability to relate complex information structures to a new context.

New contexts imply change, action and dynamism. Knowledge cannot be shared, although the technique and components of information can be shared. When a person internalizes information to the point of being able to use it, we call it knowledge (Zikmund, 2000). This is a fluid mix of structured experiences, values, contextual information and expert insight that provide a framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. In organizations it is found not only in documents and reports, but also in organizational routines, processes, practices and standards.

Knowledge has its origin and is applied to the minds of connoisseurs (Davenport and Prusak, 1998, William Zikmund, 2000). Knowledge is information as valid and accepted, integrating data, acts, information and sometimes hypotheses. Knowing requires someone to filter, combine and interpret information. Information can be considered as a “substance” that can be acquired, stored and owned by a person or a group and transmitted from person to person or from group to group.

Information has a certain stability and may be better viewed as existing at the societal level (Davenport and Prusak 1998). Although we may store it by employing various physical supports, the information itself is not physical, but abstract and so purely mental. Knowledge is stored in people's memory, but information is out there in the world. Whatever it is, there is somewhere between the physical world around people and the mental world of human thought.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Professional Competence: It is related to people or work teams, integrating technical, cognitive, social and affective aspects related to work (Brandão, 1999 AU41: The in-text citation "Brandão, 1999" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. , p. 28). It comprises knowledge, skills and attitudes or behaviors that will allow the organization's development, in fulfilling its mission (Dutra, 2001 AU42: The in-text citation "Dutra, 2001" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. );.

Organizational Competence: Is the savoir-faire of the company in a particular domain, which originates and sustains itself by professional competences, allied to the organizational processes and other Resources, or the ability to combine, mix and integrate resources into products and /or services ( Fleury & Fleury, 2001 , p. 23). They include the skills of the organization and its processes, skills in techniques and forms of work, service skills and social skills.

Informational Competence: Can be defined as the set of professional, organizational and key competences that may be linked to the profile of an information professional or an activity intensively based on information. This competence can be expressed by the expertise in dealing with the informational cycle, with information technologies and informational contexts.

Key Competence: Is the set of skills and technologies whose brand of authenticity is integration. They represent a perceived value by the customer, a differentiation between competitors, an expansion capacity ( Hamel & Prahalad, 1995 , p. 233-241). They are above all a distinctive and unique factor that marks an organization or activity.

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