Innovative Approaches for Pre-Screening and Sensing of Diseases

Innovative Approaches for Pre-Screening and Sensing of Diseases

Dharmpal Singh (JIS College of Engineering, India), Gopal Purkait (Pailan College of Management and Technology, India), Abhishek Banerjee (Pailan College of Management and Technology, India) and Parag Chatterjee (Pailan College of Management and Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7131-5.ch004

Abstract

Prescreening and sensing of diseases offers a number of benefits that can help in prevention of major diseases. The aim of disease pre-screening is to detect possible disorders or diseases in people who do not have any symptoms. Earlier screening methods for the detection of diseases was invasive, complicated, and would require extensive tests. Some conventional methods used in clinical diagnoses include many invasive and potentially hazardous biopsy procedures, endoscopy, computed tomography; numerous innovative approaches have evolved to overcome the limitations of traditional techniques. Non-invasive biomedical sensor, genomics, electronic nose, nano-material, plasmonicsensor devices, microfabrication-based technologies, flat-panel detectors, digital breast object models, endomicroscopy, breath biopsy, and wavelet-based enhancement methods are some of the emerging frontiers in prescreening and sensing of diseases. This chapter will provide an in-depth discussion of the abovementioned innovative techniques related to prescreening and sensing of diseases.
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Introduction

Today early diagnosis of deadly diseases can save precious human life. Proper pre-screening and sensing of diseases are very important for administering right treatment. In this book chapter we will discuss about different innovative pre-screening and sensing technology of different diseases. The goal of disease pre-screening is to detect potential health disorders or diseases in people who do not have any symptoms of disease. Numerous innovative approaches have evolved over the years which aim to overcome the limitations of traditional techniques for pre-screening and sensing different diseases. The recently evolved methods are Non-invasive biomedical sensor, Genomics, electronic nose, Nano-materials, plasmonic sensor devices, micro fabrication-based technologies with cell biology, flat-panel detectors (FPDs), digital breast object models, endomicroscopy, breath biopsy and wavelet-based enhancement methods. Non-invasive Biomedical sensor devices offer a variety of benefits such as early detection and also provide prevention of the risk of infection.

Carole Foy et al., (2012) used the new generations of technologies, such as ultra-high throughput sequencing to identify the outbreaks of food borne disease as compared to other previous technologies to reduce the risk of the disease. Electronic nose devices were used by Wilson (2015) to analyze the human breath profiles and opined that diagnosis will be much faster than earlier detection of human diseases and disorders. Few of the authors also used the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (Broza & Haick, 2013) by using Nano-material-based sensors, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) (Barizuddin, Bok & Gangopadhyay, 2016) to provide earlier detection of diseases and suggest the applications of medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring and food safety.

Moreover, Ertl, et al., (2014) presented a micro-fabrication-based technology based on cell biology for the development of advanced in-vitro diagnostic system which will be capable of analyzing cell cultures under physiologically relevant conditions. O’Connor et al. (2010) have proposed the techniques called digital breast object models for investigation of emerging tomographic breast imaging and opined that it has outperformed the previous mammographic screening technique. Jabbour et. al., (2012) discussed about Confocal endomicroscopy; high resolution and non-invasive imaging technology to evaluate the microscopy of cellular and sub-cellular features in tissues. Therefore, the authors have opined that it can detect any disorder; and may be provide significant advantages over conventional wide-field microscopic imaging.

Breath Biopsy is an innovative technology which can detect the presence of lung and colorectal cancer from breath samples by measuring levels of molecules called volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Z¨ohrer et al., (2010) proposed Interactive Multi-scale Contrast Enhancement for Previously Processed Digital Mammograms based on wavelet-based enhancement method. This will automatically and interactively adjust the contrast of previously processed mammograms and provides better identification of breast cancer. The diversified authors have used different techniques for Pre-Screening and Sensing of diseases but the summary of new innovative approaches has not been stated by most of authors.

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