Instructional Design Methodologies

Instructional Design Methodologies

Irene Chen (University of Houston – Downtown, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-503-2.ch108


Instructional design (ID) is the systematic process of planning events to facilitate learning. The ID process encompasses a set of interdependent phases including analysis of learners, contexts and goals; design of objectives, strategies and assessment tools; production of instructional materials; and evaluation of learner performance and overall instructional design effort. The system approach, developed in the 1950s and 1960s, is rooted in the military and business world and has dominated educational technology and educational development since the 1970s. Currently, there are more than one hundred different ISD models, with almost all based on the generic ADDIE model. Other commonly known models include the Dick and Carey Model, the R2D2 Model, the ICARE Model, and the ASSURE Model. These models share three major components: analysis, strategy development, and evaluation. This chapter identifies the different roles and responsibilities involved when developing a typical title and outlines the main steps in the development.
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Instructional Design, Technology, And Theory Background

The following key ID terminologies (1996) are explained in “Definitions of Instructional Design”:

  • The discipline of instructional design is a branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.

  • Instructional development is the process of implementing the design plans.

  • An instructional system is an arrangement of resources and procedures to promote learning. Instructional design is the systematic process of developing instructional systems and instructional development is the process of implementing the system or plan.

  • Instructional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development.

The growth of instructional design is relatively brief when compared with more mature design fields such as architecture. Only during the last century have scholars conducted in-depth research into learning theories, instructional theories, and systematic approaches to instruction. Many researchers analyze how human learning is relevant for the design of educational material (Gros, Elen, Kerres, Merrienböer, & Spector, 1997; Reigeluth, 1999; Schneider, n.d.; Winn, 1997). ID theory provides guidance on the task of designing learning experiences. It also provides a bridge to learning theories and instructional theories. According to Reigeluth, “Instructional theory describes a variety of methods of instruction (different ways of facilitating human learning and development) and when to use—and not use—each of those methods” (Squire & Reigeluth, 2000).

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