Instructional Design Models and Theories

Instructional Design Models and Theories

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1542-6.ch005
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Instructional design models help instructors to organize, develop, administer, and evaluate learning programs. Seven of the theories that drive these efforts are situated cognition theory, sociocultural learning theory, the ADDIE model, Merrill's principles of instruction, individualized instruction, Bloom's taxonomy of learning objectives, and the SAM model. All these models are highly iterative meaning that changes are frequent and interlocked. This makes the evaluation of learning that occurred highly important. Dr. Robert Mager is credited with being the father of the instructional objective. The effective performance objective consists of three parts: the terminal behavior, the conditions under which the behavior will be performed, and a standard of acceptable performance. Consequently, the complete objective contains the essence of what should be evaluated. A very key element in this learning process is the provision of immediate and detailed feedback. Several good authoring apps exist that can support computers in performing this task.
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Information And Communications Technology (Ict) Capability

Figure 1.



One must make a distinction between information and communications technology (ICT) capability and instructional technology: ICT subsumes Instructional technology. Nay (2019) divides ICT capability into three areas: investigation, communication, and creation. Though this is ostensibly for lower grades, it is highly likely to transcend grade and age levels. While computer hardware and software experience constant change with old ones becoming obsolete or dropped as new and more sophisticated software are developed, ICT remains relatively constant with its mission of investigation, communication, and creation. It can engage in this mission regardless of specific hardware and software.

ICT plays a key role in education with teaching, learning, and assessment. Among these are the following:

  • enhance learning opportunities through access to a range of resources, stimulus materials, and learning tools

  • provide increased opportunities for student engagement and motivation

  • equip students with the necessary knowledge and skills to use ICT to support 21st-century learning

  • support the development of effective student research and evaluation skills

  • promote critical and creative thinking skills

  • increase teacher and student efficiency

  • develop an awareness of the public nature of online activity and related responsibilities

  • increase opportunities to work collaboratively, locally, nationally and globally Nay (2019 August 19, para. 3).

ICT can be applied in various forms, some of which are as follows:

  • multimedia creation tools, including cameras, microphones, and audio editing programs

  • programming tools

  • game-based learning and game development opportunities

  • online collaboration tools, including blogs and wikis

  • web 2.0 and web 3.0 tools

  • GPS, geo-tagging, geographic information systems

  • simulations

  • electronic portfolios

  • productivity tools, including word processing, databases, spreadsheets, graphic editing

  • interactive manipulatives, such as interactive geometry applications

  • contextualised learning experiences, including robotics, 3D modelling, virtual learning environments (including field trips), web quests (Nay, 2019 August 19, para. 5).

Next, one would be wise to explore instructional design models and theories and how to apply them.

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