Instructional Re-design for an Active Flipped Classroom: Two Frameworks Are Better than One

Instructional Re-design for an Active Flipped Classroom: Two Frameworks Are Better than One

Kim A. Hosler (University of Denver, USA)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9680-8.ch005
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The purpose of this chapter is to present and discuss the instructional design process model -- ADDIE, and nine flipped course design principles, which when used in parallel, offer a means to support the development and implementation of a hybrid or flipped classroom. Discussion of the pedagogical terms hybrid, blended, flipped classrooms, and active learning, are followed by an overview of the instructional design process model ADDIE, along with evidenced-based flipped classroom design principles. A partial example of how these two frameworks may be applied to the re-design of a fully online course into a flipped or hybrid course is demonstrated, and emergent design-consideration questions are offered.
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Understanding Hybrid, Blended, And Flipped

The term hybrid has emerged to describe a course in which online or another type of distance instruction is combined with face-to-face instruction, such that a substantial amount of the face-to-face instruction is replaced by online instruction. Caulfield (2011) further explicated this idea by claiming hybrid teaching “refers to the interwoven higher-level cognitive processes involved in structured, outcomes-based, student-centered teaching and learning occurring in multiple environments” (p. 4). As such, hybrid teaching places the primary responsibility for learning on the learner, with the responsibility for creating active learning opportunities and engaging learning environments with the instructor. Caulfield (2011) noted the roles of the instructor and learner are fluid in a hybrid teaching environment where technology is used “in lieu of some portion of time spent in the classroom” (p. 6).

Dziuban, Hartman, and Moskal (2004), observed that a new set of labels has emerged to describe the phenomenon of the combination of classroom instruction with online instruction; labels such as hybrid learning, blended learning, and mixed-mode instruction. They claimed, “The mere existence of so many names for what is essentially a single concept suggest that no dominate model has yet been accepted as a definitions of standard practice” (p. 2). The authors then referred to hybrid or blended learning as “courses that combine face-to-face classroom instruction with online learning and reduced classroom contact hours (reduced seat time)” (p.7). Dziuban, et al. (2004) also proposed that the construct of blended learning or hybrid learning be approached as “a fundamental redesign of the instructional model”, moving from lectures to more learner-centered, active instruction, characterized by “increases in interaction between student-instructor, student-student, student-content and student-outside resources” (p.3)

Key Terms in this Chapter

Flipped: An instructional delivery model where students read and review notes, texts and other course content materials prior to attending class, thus using class time to work actively on problems, assignments, and to resolve questions. In a flipped learning environment what was traditionally done as homework is now completed in the classroom with instructor guidance as needed.

Active Learning: An instructional strategy where by students are actively engaged in doing something relevant to the course content, such as discussion participation, activities that involve gathering and interacting with information, problem solving, or questioning.

Process Model: A logical collection of actions, steps or procedures implemented in a coherent framework. A process model offers a visual or narrative account of how something works, comes together, or proceeds, and how those actions, steps or procedures lead to specific results.

Hybrid: A course format or instructional delivery model where elements or activities in a course are facilitated in the classroom (face-to-face) while integrated with additional elements or activities facilitated online. Often used interchangeably with the term blended.

Blended: A course format or instructional delivery model that delivers some portion or percentage of the course online as well as in the classroom environment. It is a blend and integration of face-to-face learning activities with online learning activities. Often used interchangeably with the term hybrid.

ADDIE: An acronym for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate that represents a high-level iterative model for designing and building instruction.

Design Principles: Fundamentals or standards used to guide, organize and inform the elements of something. Design principles refer to the guidelines or heuristics that inform the creation, development and implementation of a flipped classroom.

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