Integrating Knowledge, Performance, and Learning Systems

Integrating Knowledge, Performance, and Learning Systems

Scott P. Schaffer, Ian Douglas
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-59904-933-5.ch131
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Considerable effort has been devoted recently to development of systems or platforms that manage the learning, performance, or knowledge delivered to students and employees. These systems are generically labeled learning management systems (LMS), learning and content management systems (LCMS), performance support systems, and knowledge management systems (Rockley, 2002). Organizations increasingly use content management systems to deliver content objects to employees on a just-in-time basis to support knowledge and performance requirements (Rosenberg, 1999). While systems are developed that efficiently manage learning, knowledge, or performance, it seems desirable to consider how integration of each of these areas into a single system would benefit organizations. A major challenge to developing such systems has been the degree to which they are interoperable and the components within each are reusable. Reuse of data or information for learning or performance solution development is considered the primary driving force behind the movement toward object-based architectures for such systems (Douglas & Schaffer, 2002; Schaffer & Douglas, 2004). Ideas for integrating different sources of support for individuals and making its construction more cost effective have begun to take shape. Some efforts have focused on reusable and interchangeable (between different delivery systems) content objects, such as the U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Distributed Learning initiative (http://www.adlnet. org). A big challenge in development of support is the lack of a pedagogical model that takes advantage of object-based architectures while promoting collaboration and knowledge capture and sharing. A significant move in this direction has been outlined by Collis and Strjker (2003) who view the learner as a contributor of knowledge that may be captured and stored for reuse by future learners or course designers. An expansion of this idea, focused on in this article, is the reuse of the contributions of various members of a design and development team. This includes artifacts, decisions, and rationales related to activities such as the analysis of needs, identification of metrics, and identification of causes and possible solutions to workplace problems. This approach essentially attempts to link the analysis and design processes related to initial development of solutions with the ongoing adaptation and evaluation

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