Integrating Sensor Nodes into a Middleware for Ambient Intelligence

Integrating Sensor Nodes into a Middleware for Ambient Intelligence

Holger Klus (TU Clausthal, Germany) and Dirk Niebuhr (TU Clausthal, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-549-0.ch022
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Abstract

The development of infrastructures enabling dynamic and automated composition of IT systems is a big challenge. This paper addresses a new idea of allowing component-based systems to reconfigure themselves. Therefore, we propose DAiSI - a Dynamic Adaptive System Infrastructure for dynamic integration of components as well as their reconfiguration during runtime. Thereby, one of the features of the infrastructure is, that it is capable of binding components based on their availability. In this paper we concentrate on presenting how resource constrained sensor nodes can be integrated into a system using this infrastructure.
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Introduction

The vision of Ubiquitous Computing or Ambient Intelligence aims towards supporting people in their daily life at home or at work. In recent years more and more embedded components have become available trying to make this vision come true. Unfortunately these components rarely work together allowing the formation of dynamic systems with emerging capabilities. Building infrastructures for dynamic and automated composition of these components to exchange data and form new systems is a big challenge. For allowing components to work in an ambient manner, these components have to be bound. Moreover, Ubiquitous Computing or Ambient Intelligence systems have to be dynamically adaptive since some components are mobile and may appear suddenly during runtime. The dynamic integration of components into a system at runtime therefore is crucial for these kind of systems (Bartelt et al., 2005). For simplicity we will refer to those systems as Dynaptive1 Systems in the following. This paper addresses a new idea of allowing Dynaptive Systems to reconfigure themselves and introduces an approach for integrating resource constraint sensor nodes.

We propose the Dynamic Adaptive System Infrastructure DAiSI. It is an infrastructure for component reconfiguration and dynamic integration. The heart of DAiSI is a Configuration Component which manages the automatic binding of components based on their required and provided services. We present the general component model and the DAiSI Configuration Component. Moreover we show how a specific sensor node can be integrated in such a self-configuring system.

Context

The work presented in this paper was (partially) carried out in the BelAmI (Bilateral German-Hungarian Research Collaboration on Ambient Intelligence Systems) project (Bilateral German–Hungarian Collaboration Project on Ambient Intelligence Systems, 2009), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft and the Ministry for Science, Education, Research and Culture of Rhineland-Palatinate (MWWFK). DAiSI has initially been developed to serve as basis for binding components of the BelAmI project. The application domain of the BelAmI project is assisted living, where a demonstrator for elderly care has been built (Nehmer, Becker, Karshmer,&Lamm, 2006). In this demonstrator multiple embedded sensors collect data within an intelligent home environment. The goal was to aggregate this sensor information to probabilistically gather results about the constitution of elderly people and to support them in various manners. One application, we realized within the BelAmI project, was an intelligent fridge running on top of DAiSI (Klus, Niebuhr, & Rausch, 2007). This fridge was able to detect spoilt food or provide recipes based on its contents.

In the following we further evolved DAiSI in order to achieve dependable dynamic adaptive systems by binding only components, which are semantically compatible. This extended version of DAiSI has been elaborated within the Resist project funded by Siemens. Together with Siemens we applied for a patent on our approach to Dependable Dynamic Adaptive Systems using Behavior Equivalence Classes to (re-)evaluate semantical Compatibility of Component Bindings (Niebuhr, Rausch, Klus, Appel, Klein, Reichmann, & Schmid, 2010).

We exhibited an application demonstrator from the emergency management domain at CeBIT 2009 visualizing the benefits of our approach (Niebuhr, Schindler, & Herrling, 2009). This demonstrator will also serve as application example within this paper.

Paper outline

The paper is structured as follows: First of all we distinguish our middleware platform from related work. Then we continue with a short description of the application example which will be used to explain our concepts in the following. Afterwards, we describe how DAiSI is structured, how DAiSI application components are integrated into a system, and how they are configured automatically. Finally we sketch a concept how resource constrained sensor nodes can be integrated into DAiSI and end up with conclusions we derived from this work.

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