Integration of Knowledge Sharing Into Project Management

Integration of Knowledge Sharing Into Project Management

Copyright: © 2023 |Pages: 17
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-9220-5.ch183
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Projects have been increasingly used in the implementation of organizations' business operations. Knowledge sharing has been considered essential in project environment; therefore, the integration of knowledge management within project management becomes crucial for project success. The objective of this research is to study how knowledge sharing is integrated within the context of a project, and what the perception of project team members about it is. A study was carried out in a company within the financial sector, focused on a project team of the entity. The results revealed that project managers, other professionals in project management, and the organization itself are very aware of the importance of knowledge sharing. The results also emphasized that, regardless of the lack of incentives by top management, project team members consider that knowledge sharing highly contributes to a successful execution of projects.
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An increasing number of organizations have implemented their business operations through projects (Todorović, et., 2015). Projects that can be defined as a temporary effort to create a specific product or service (PMI, 2017). Temporary, in the sense that a project has a defined beginning and end, and unique, in the sense that the product/service is different in some way, distinct from other products/services (Owen & Burstein, 2005; PMI, 2017). Projects are collective endeavors with goals based on the development of common understandings, which generate personal and group knowledge that contributes to their own success (Sankarasubramanian, 2009).

For many organizations, knowledge is the most important asset and its survival depends on the organization's ability to effectively use existing knowledge and to effectively create, develop and use new knowledge (Pascoe & More, 2005). Proper knowledge is a basic prerequisite for effective project management (Gasik, 2011) and the knowledge management is vital factor to successfully undertake projects (Sokhanvar, 2014). According to Koskinen and Pihlanto (2008), projects are often dependent on knowledge that is not in their possession. Within this context, the integration of knowledge management in project management is necessary to share information and knowledge to solve problems effectively and efficiently (Yeong & Lim, 2010). Knowledge, defined by Gao et al (2018) as the practical and theoretical understanding of a subject, is considered as an essential organizational resource (Buvik & Tvedt, 2017; Hanisch et al., 2009) and its management is considered as a fundamental tool for the success of the projects (Romani, 2017).

Generically knowledge management represents the set of processes and practices carried out in organizations with the objective of increasing intellectual potential, improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the management of organizational knowledge resources (Heisig, 2009; Andreeva and Kianto, 2012). The basic purpose of knowledge management is to create and share knowledge within organizations (Chen et al., 2018). Knowledge sharing is especially important in a project environment and contributes significantly to the performance of organizations (Buvik & Tvedt, 2017) and to understand the best way to share knowledge between teams and between members of a project (Fernie et., 2003). Further, Al Ahbabi et al. (2019) conclude that the dimensions of knowledge management had a positive impact on innovation, quality and operational performance of employees. Gürlek & Çemberci (2020) shows that firms under the leadership of knowledge-oriented leaders have high knowledge management capacity, innovation performance and firm performance. Also, due to the temporary nature of projects, knowledge management in project-based organizations is not like functional companies (Kasvi, Vartiainen, & Hailikari, 2003). Project team members split up or leave after project completion and this poses several challenges to projects and project-based organizations (Ajmal, Helo, & Kekale, 2010)

Through a case study approach, it is proved that team members use different knowledge sharing practices, in addition to recognizing its importance for the most successful management of their projects.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Knowledge Creation: The process in which new knowledge is created through the four sub-processes of organizational knowledge creation ( Andreeva & Kianto, 2011 ).

Knowledge Sharing: The action of disseminating knowledge among individuals, groups and organizations ( Chen et al., 2018 ).

Knowledge Transfer: The communication of knowledge from a source to a recipient ( Alavi & Denford, 2011 ).

Explicit Knowledge: Refers to knowledge that is transmissible in a formal and systemic language ( Nonaka, 1994 ; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995 ).

Project Knowledge Management: The application of concepts, tools and techniques to complete a project within the defined time and budget, responding to the client's needs ( Romani, 2017 ).

Knowledge: Seen as an intangible asset, which is valuable, distinctive, path-dependent, causally ambiguous and hard to substitute or replicate ( Fang et al., 2013 , p. 945).

Knowledge Management: The set of processes related to the creation, sharing and use of knowledge ( Ahmad et al., 2017 ; Shujahat et al., 2017 ).

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