Intelligent Biometric System Using Soft Computing Tools

Intelligent Biometric System Using Soft Computing Tools

Anupam Shukla (ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, India), Ritu Tiwari (ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, India) and Chandra Prakash Rathore (ABV- Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61692-004-3.ch014

Abstract

Biometric Systems verify the identity of a claimant based on the person’s physical attributes, such as voice, face or fingerprints. Its application areas include security applications, forensic work, law enforcement applications etc. This work presents a novel concept of applying Soft Computing Tools, namely Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy System, for person identification using speech and facial features. The work is divided in four cases, which are Person Identification using speech biometrics, facial biometrics, fusion of speech and facial biometrics and finally fusion of optimized speech and facial biometrics.
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Introduction

Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and degrees of intelligence occur in people, many animals and some machines. R. Jensen1, a leading researcher in human intelligence, suggests ‘as a heuristic hypothesis' that “all normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to ‘quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions’. I see them as speed, short term memory, and the ability to form accurate and retrievable long term memories.” Whether or not Jensen is right about human intelligence, the situation in Artificial Intelligence (AI) today is the reverse. After World War II, a number of people independently started to work on intelligent machines. The English mathematician Alan Turing may have been the first to start AI research. He also may have been the first to decide that AI was best researched by programming computers rather than by building machines. By the late 1950s, there were many researchers on AI, and most of them were basing their work on programming computers. So, what is artificial intelligence? The answer is simple, “It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs”. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence, but AI does not have to confine itself to methods that are biologically observable. The ultimate effort is to make computer programs that can solve problems and achieve goals in the world as well as humans. However, many people involved in particular research areas are much less ambitious. Medical informatics is “a developing body of knowledge and a set of techniques concerning the organizational management of information in support of medical research, education, and patient care”. Medical informatics combines medical science with several technologies and disciplines in the information and computer sciences and provides methodologies by which these can contribute to better use of the medical knowledge base and ultimately to better medical care. In most developing countries insufficient of medical specialist has increase the mortality of patients suffered from various diseases. Current practice for medical treatment required patients to consult specialist for further diagnosis and treatment. However, the waiting time for treatments normally takes a few days, weeks or even months. Computer technology could be used to reduce the number of mortality and reduce the waiting time to see the specialist. Initially AI was applied to medicine, later to biostatistics, economics, cognitive psychology etc.

There are two kinds of AI

  • factual AI - eg, anatomy of the heart

  • problem solving AI - eg, diagnosis

Employing the technology especially Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques in medical applications could reduce the cost, time, human expertise and medical error.

The objectives of this chapter are, to:

  • Establish relationship between AI and medical field

  • Study analytical perspectives in the applications of artificial intelligence in medical field

  • Study the Novel issues in artificial intelligence in medical field

  • Study the Novel perspectives in the field of artificial intelligence in Medicine

  • Model expert systems in medical field

  • Solve controversies and problems of Artificial Intelligence in medicine (AIM)

  • Future of AI in medical diagnosis

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Artificial Intelligence In Medicine (Aim)

The main goals of AI in medicine (AIM) are1

  • To assist but not to replace the physician-do what computer does the best: memory, processing

  • To focus attention

  • To provide diagnosis

  • To facilitate management

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