Intelligent Medical Diagnostic System for Diabetes

Intelligent Medical Diagnostic System for Diabetes

Jimmy Singla (Lovely Professional University, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9096-5.ch010

Abstract

In this chapter, the neuro-fuzzy technique has been used for the diagnosis of different types of diabetes. It has been reported in the literature that triangular membership functions have been deployed for Mamdani and Sugeno fuzzy expert systems that have been used for diagnosis of different types of diabetes. The Gaussian membership functions are expected to give better results. In this context, Gaussian membership functions have been attempted in the neuro-fuzzy system for the diagnosis of different types of diabetes in the research work, and improved results have been obtained in terms of different parameters like sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision. Further, for the comparative study, the dataset used for neuro-fuzzy expert system developed in this research work has been considered on Mamdani fuzzy expert system as well as Sugeno fuzzy expert system, and it has been confirmed that the result parameters show better values in the proposed model.
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Introduction

Diabetes occurs due to lack of insulin. The body uses glucose through the help of a hormone called insulin. But this hormone cannot be produced by the diabetic person properly. So, due to lack of insulin the glucose level in the blood increases and it results in high blood sugar. The main causes of diabetes are health and environmental factors. Diabetes can be diagnosed by some blood tests like RBS, AIC test, PP test etc. There are mainly three types of diabetes. These three types are type1 diabetes, type2 diabetes and pre diabetes. The destruction of cells of the pancreatic tissue is the major reason of diabetes known as the islets of langerhans. Type 1 diabetes arises mostly due to autoimmune disorder or strong genetic components. Type1 diabetes arises mostly in children and adults. It will increase the blood glucose level of the body. 5 to 10 percent of the persons are affected by type1 diabetes. The warning signs of type 1 diabetes are regular urination, disproportionate dehydration and tetchiness, severe starvation accompanied by loss of weight, sickness, queasiness and tiredness. Type 2 Diabetes is another category of diabetes which occurs due to genetic links, lack of sleep, poor diet, obesity, stress, etc. Rate of type 2 diabetic patients has increased markedly since 1960. In 1985, it was approximately 30 million people and in 2010 it was approximately 285 million people. 20 to 40 percent of population is affected by type 2 diabetes. Type2 diabetes is developed in a person having age in between forty five to sixty five. The main reasons of type2 diabetes are obesity and family history. Other symptoms of type 2 diabetes are lack of sensation in hands or feet, gum or bladder infectivity, exhaustion, imprecise vision, frequent urination, excessive thirst, excessive irritability. Pre Diabetes is like a wakeup call that human is on the path of diabetes. In Prediabetes the level of blood glucose is higher than normal. Pre Diabetes makes patient more likely to get heart disease or have a stroke. But patient can also take actions to lower those risks. Prediabetes can also lead to type 2 diabetes.

There are several factors affecting diabetes. In this study we have considered following factors for the diagnosis of diabetes:

  • Age

  • Obesity

  • RBS

  • Family health history

Age is the length of time during which a human being has existed. As said by the organization of american diabetes, about 5090 citizens below the age of 20 are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes annually.

Obesity is a state where an individual has gathered so much body fat that it might have a harmful result on the health. The community is normally considered overweight or obese when their BMI is more than 30 kg/m2.

Random blood sugar test is performed on a sample of blood to measure level of glucose in blood. It is performed to confirm diabetes mellitus.

Family health history is a significant parameter with which a number of serious diseases occurred, even including type 2 diabetes. In truth, mostly individuals with type 2 diabetes have same disease in their blood relations like father, mother, brother and sister.

Need of the Study

Though India is a developed country yet the death rate increases day by day because of the different diseases such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease, skin problem and cancer. Most of these diseases occur due to diabetes. Today, in India there are more than 62 million diabetic persons. IDF identifies that, almost 52% of Indian persons are distressed from diabetes and they do not know about disease. According to IDF in 2011 nearly 10 lacs Indian were affected by diabetes and by 2030 the numbers are expected to cross 100 million. Nearly 44 lacs adults aged (20 to 79 years) are affected by the diabetes. The reason behind the increase in death rate is unawareness among individuals. Another reason is the carelessness of individuals regarding their lifestyle that increases the diseases and results in a high death rate. It concludes that the medical expert systems are required to overcome the burden due to diabetes. This study is about the classification of diabetes by using intelligent systems. This study focuses on detection of all kinds of diabetes like type1, type2 and prediabetes by using Mamdani FIS and Sugeno FIS. In this research work, Neuro-fuzzy expert system has been proposed and better results have been obtained.

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