Intensive Biochemical Processes of Wastewater Treatment With High Caloricity Biogas Production

Intensive Biochemical Processes of Wastewater Treatment With High Caloricity Biogas Production

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1241-8.ch013
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Anaerobic digestion of organic substrates in wastewaters from agro-industrial sector can be efficient method to reduce the pollutant contents, and also a source of biogas. The research is focused on developing of intensified biogas technology and integrated equipment, based on a series of original approaches. New types of new phyto-catalysts of methanogenic digestion were proposed: aescinum, squalene, and betulinol, introduced in the digested biomass in micro-concentrations of 10-3-10-5%. The proposed substances promote about 1.5-2 times acceleration of methanogenic process and increase biomethane contents in biogas close to the natural gas level – up to 93-97%. As a feedstock for biochemical digestion, post-distillery vinasse in mixture with farmyard manure was used. By combining of biochemical treatment with microfiltration an advanced treatment degree was reached, reducing COD from 28530 mg O2/L to 187 mg O2/L. In bioreactor proposed, biomass using coefficient reaches 85-93%, as compared to 60% in the conventional biogas processes.
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The pollution of surface water with organic compounds from leachates of wastes generated by industries of agricultural products processing has become an issue of serious environmental concern, especially considering the lack of efficient treatment technologies and facilities, their high maintenance and operational costs and need for energy resources for the conventional aerobic digestion treatment of such waste waters (Rozich et al., 2002; Suvilampi, 2003).

This problem is common for many countries worldwide. For instance, in the Republic of Moldova two large rivers Dniester and Prut and a network of their tributaries, small rivers, serve as the main sources of drinking water for the millions of people. However, due to the discharges of untreated wastes and waste waters from the industries of agro-industrial sector, the major economy sector developed in this area, such as wineries, cattle and poultry farms, fruit and vegetable processors the waters of small rivers become highly polluted with organics and suspended solids. As a result, such waters, when inflowing the Dniester and Prut, bring a variety of pollutants, among them rather toxic and persistent substances (Opopol, 2006; Nastasuic et al., 2016). Along with the environmental problems, the natural water sources polluted with the insufficiently treated effluents can be a matter of serious health concerns (Okoh et al., 2010; Verbyla et al., 2015; Xiao et al., 2018).

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