Inter and Intra Cities Smartness: A Survey on Location Problems and GIS Tools

Inter and Intra Cities Smartness: A Survey on Location Problems and GIS Tools

Ghada A. El Khayat (Alexandria University, Egypt) and Nada Ahmad Fashal (Alexandria University, Egypt)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7033-2.ch075

Abstract

The rapid advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) contribute to the creation of ‘Smart Cities'/‘Knowledge Precincts' that use data, information and technologies to enable innovative business models. This contributes to the nations' development. For smart cities/knowledge precincts to realize the planned social and economic impact; they have to be well-located and planned. Creating connections among cities also contributes to their smartness. This, calls for concepts of inter and intra smartness contributed in this chapter. The question is: a) how to locate the components of the smart city internally and b) how to locate the smart cities relative to each other and to their communities. Location problems are tackled with optimization and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools. This chapter starts by giving definitions on the topic and then presents a survey on the ‘Smart Cities'/‘Knowledge Precincts' location problems that use optimization and GIS tools and concludes with avenues for future research.
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Background

In this section, definitions of the terms as will be used in this chapter will be provided. The authors will adopt some definitions of the literature or provide their definitions for the different terms used. The section also presents the topic discussed.

ICT (information and communications technology – or technologies) is considered as an umbrella term that includes‎ any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer ‎and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and ‎applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning (Rouse, 2005). ICT can also be defined as the digital processing and utilization of information by the use of electronic computers; it ‎comprises the storage, retrieval, conversion and transmission of information (Okauru, 2010). ICT refers to two components: information technology (IT) and communication technology (CT). IT refers to computer software and hardware, including tablets and personal digital assistance (PDA) devices. CT refers to internet facilities, including smart phones (Mamun, Danaher & Rahman, 2015). Most of the definitions in the literature share a similar notion which is that information has to be generated and shared. They also ‎assert that, such information must be digital or electronic.

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