Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education Systems

Interactive Multimedia Technologies for Distance Education Systems

Hakikur Rahman (SDNP, Bangladesh)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-014-1.ch100
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Abstract

Information is typically stored, manipulated, delivered, and retrieved using a plethora of existing and emerging technologies. Businesses and organizations must adopt these emerging technologies to remain competitive. However, the evolution and progress of the technology (object orientation, high-speed networking, Internet, and so on) has been so rapid, that organizations are constantly facing new challenges in end-user training programs. These new technologies are impacting the whole organization, creating a paradigm shift which, in turn, enables them to do business in ways never possible before (Chatterjee & Jin, 1997). Information systems based on hypertext can be extended to include a wide range of data types, resulting in hypermedia, providing a new approach to information access with data storage devices, such as magnetic media, video disk, and compact disk. Along with alphanumeric data, today’s computer systems can handle text, graphics, and images, thus bringing audio and video into everyday use. DETF Report (2000) refers that technology can be classified into noninteractive and time-delayed interactive systems, and interactive distance learning systems. Noninteractive and time-delayed interactive systems include printed materials, correspondence, one-way radio, and television broadcasting. Interactive distance learning systems can be termed as “live interactive” or “stored interactive,” and range from satellite and compressed videoconferencing, to standalone computer-assisted instruction with two or more participants linked together, but situated in locations that are separated by time and/or place. Different types of telecommunications technology are available for the delivery of educational programs to single and multiple sites throughout disunited areas and locations. Diaz (1999) indicated that there are numerous multimedia technologies that can facilitate self-directed, practice-centered learning and meet the challenges of educational delivery to the adult learner. Though, delivering content via the WWW has been tormented by unreliability and inconsistency of information transfer, resulting in unacceptable delays and the inability to effectively deliver complex multimedia elements, including audio, video, and graphics. A CD/Web hybrid, a Web site on a compact disc (CD), combining the strengths of the CD-ROM and the WWW, can facilitate the delivery of multimedia elements by preserving connectivity, even at constricted bandwidth. Compressing a Web site onto a CD-ROM can reduce the amount of time that students spend interacting with a given technology, and can increase the amount of time they spend learning. University teaching and learning experiences are being replicated independently of time and place via appropriate technology-mediated learning processes, like the Internet, the Web, CD-ROM, and so on. However, it is possible to increase the educational gains possible by using the Internet while continuing to optimize the integration of other learning media and resources through interactive multimedia communications. Among other conventional interactive teaching methods, Interactive Multimedia Methods (IMMs) seems to be adopted as another mainstream in the path of distance learning system.
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Introduction

Information is typically stored, manipulated, delivered, and retrieved using a plethora of existing and emerging technologies. Businesses and organizations must adopt these emerging technologies to remain competitive. However, the evolution and progress of the technology (object orientation, high-speed networking, Internet, and so on) has been so rapid, that organizations are constantly facing new challenges in end-user training programs. These new technologies are impacting the whole organization, creating a paradigm shift which, in turn, enables them to do business in ways never possible before (Chatterjee & Jin, 1997).

Information systems based on hypertext can be extended to include a wide range of data types, resulting in hypermedia, providing a new approach to information access with data storage devices, such as magnetic media, video disk, and compact disk. Along with alphanumeric data, today’s computer systems can handle text, graphics, and images, thus bringing audio and video into everyday use.

DETF Report (2000) refers that technology can be classified into noninteractive and time-delayed interactive systems, and interactive distance learning systems. Noninteractive and time-delayed interactive systems include printed materials, correspondence, one-way radio, and television broadcasting. Interactive distance learning systems can be termed as “live interactive” or “stored interactive,” and range from satellite and compressed videoconferencing, to stand-alone computer-assisted instruction with two or more participants linked together, but situated in locations that are separated by time and/or place. Different types of telecommunications technology are available for the delivery of educational programs to single and multiple sites throughout disunited areas and locations.

Diaz (1999) indicated that there are numerous multimedia technologies that can facilitate self-directed, practice-centered learning and meet the challenges of educational delivery to the adult learner. Though, delivering content via the WWW has been tormented by unreliability and inconsistency of information transfer, resulting in unacceptable delays and the inability to effectively deliver complex multimedia elements, including audio, video, and graphics. A CD/Web hybrid, a Web site on a compact disc (CD), combining the strengths of the CD-ROM and the WWW, can facilitate the delivery of multimedia elements by preserving connectivity, even at constricted bandwidth. Compressing a Web site onto a CD-ROM can reduce the amount of time that students spend interacting with a given technology, and can increase the amount of time they spend learning.

University teaching and learning experiences are being replicated independently of time and place via appropriate technology-mediated learning processes, like the Internet, the Web, CD-ROM, and so on. However, it is possible to increase the educational gains possible by using the Internet while continuing to optimize the integration of other learning media and resources through interactive multimedia communications. Among other conventional interactive teaching methods, Interactive Multimedia Methods (IMMs) seems to be adopted as another mainstream in the path of distance learning system.

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Background

Hofstetter, in his book (Multimedia Instruction Literacy), defined “Multimedia Instruction” as “the use of a computer to present and combine text, graphics, audio and video, with links and tools that let the user navigate, interact, create and communicate.”

Interactive Multimedia enables the exchange of ideas and thoughts via the most appropriate presentation and transmission media. The goal is to provide an empowering environment where multimedia may be used anytime, anywhere, at moderate cost and in a user-friendly manner. Yet the technologies employed must remain apparently transparent to the end user. Interactive distance learning systems can be termed as “live interactive” or “stored interactive,” and range from satellite and compressed videoconferencing to stand-alone computer-assisted instruction with two or more participants linked together, but situated in locations that are separated by time and/or place.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Interactive Learning: Interactive learning is defined as the process of exchanging and sharing of knowledge resources conducive to innovation between an innovator, its suppliers, and/or its clients. It may start with a resource-based argument, which is specified by introducing competing and complementary theoretical arguments, such as the complexity and structuring of innovative activities, and cross-sectoral technological dynamics.

Multimedia/Multimedia Technology: Multimedia is more than one concurrent presentation medium (for example, CD-ROM or a Web site). Although still images are a different medium than text, multimedia is typically used to mean the combination of text, sound, and/or motion video.

ISDN: ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a set of CCITT/ITU (Comité Consultatif International Téléphonique et Télégraphique/International Telecommunications Union) standards for digital transmission over ordinary telephone copper wire, as well as over other media. ISDN, in concept, is the integration of both analog or voice data together with digital data over the same network.

T1: The T1 (or T-1) carrier is the most commonly used digital line in the United States, Canada, and Japan. In these countries, it carries 24 pulse code modulation (PCM) signals using time-division multiplexing (TDM) at an overall rate of 1.544 million bits per second (Mbps). In the T-1 system, voice signals are sampled 8,000 times a second, and each sample is digitized into an 8-bit word.

Multicast: Multicast is communication between a single sender and multiple receivers on a network. Typical uses include the updating of mobile personnel from a home office and the periodic issuance of online newsletters. Together with anycast and unicast, multicast is one of the packet types in the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6).

Interactive Multimedia Method (IMM): It is a multimedia system in which related items of information are connected and can be presented together. This system combines different media of for its communication purposes, such as, text, graphics, sound, and so on.

Hypermedia: Hypermedia is a computer-based information retrieval system that enables a user to gain or provide access to texts, audio and video recordings, photographs, and computer graphics related to a particular subject.

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