Interconnection Issues in CPS

Interconnection Issues in CPS

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-7312-0.ch004
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Abstract

This chapter shows the interconnection issues in different wireless networks such as ad hoc networks and sensor networks. It also specifies the need for multicast routing protocols in mobile networks, because these wireless networks are suitable for multicast communication due to its inherent transmission ability. Based on the area to be covered, mechanism used for sensor deployment, and various properties of sensor network properties, different coverage formulations have been suggested. In addition, several constructions reachable areas and their expectations along with an outline of the explanations are described. Though 802.11 planned for organization-based systems, the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) offered in 802.11 permits mobile networks to communicate with the channel exclusive of the base location. Several performance issues related to IEEE 802.11 are revealed. This chapter identifies the main reasons for performance losses and provides solutions for the scenarios that are specific to certain issues related to CPS.
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Multicast Problems In Ad Hoc Networks

The unexplored region of AHNs is forwarding a packet and multicast channelling which is impartial. Since multicast channelling in fixed-structure is established on either soft state or hard state router, it is necessarily inappropriate for an AHN environs with unrestricted movement.

Unrestricted movement means:

  • The performance of host is unrelated other hosts,

  • The speed of host is unrestricted,

  • Movement is also unrestricted on its way, and

  • More likelihood of temporary and numerous divisions in network.

Furthermore, in many types of AHNs both energy and capacity are strictly restricted which adds to the reasons to avoid exchanging and maintaining state of multicasting. The possibility of numerous deviations in topology is challenging to utilize clustering algorithms. For low power host maintenance of hard state and recurrent selections of cluster head are more costly.

And one more significant attention of AHNs is that it should be robust and should deliver high quality of service. However multicast protocols cannot provide the highest delivery guarantees.

To overcome multicast problems in Ad-Hoc network few protocols (Anastasi, Conti,& Gregori,2004) are created such as:

  • 1.

    Table-driven protocols,

  • 2.

    On demand routing protocols,

  • 3.

    Secure transmissions, and

  • 4.

    Ad-Hoc Multicast Routing (AMRoute) protocols.

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