Intermediates of Open Innovation in the Aquaculture Industry: A Glimpse at Knowledge Transfer and Trends

Intermediates of Open Innovation in the Aquaculture Industry: A Glimpse at Knowledge Transfer and Trends

Jorge Ramos (University of Algarve, Portugal) and Pedro Pousão Ferreira (Portuguese Institute for the Ocean and Atmosphere, Portugal)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5849-1.ch010

Abstract

Aquaculture appears to be the most adequate and logical way to suit the protein production problem. Basically, because unlike fisheries that are highly unpredictable, aquaculture rearing is based upon production protocols. This chapter developed an argument supporting the above rationale. As it stands, the evidence suggests that with the current use of information technology, it becomes a common practice to exchange aquaculture knowledge between firms, research bodies, or non-governmental organizations. The interaction between the whole set of stakeholders, where a broad range of know-how and intermediate products and services are developed, generates innovation. Sharing know-how creates open innovation. Open innovation, by its turn, seeks efficiency and generates more sustainable production processes. The way knowledge transfer is delivered and its trends are dependent upon dimensions such as economic, social, and cultural factors.
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Introduction

Knowledge and technology are always improving. Capturing value from an early stage of technology is a key feature to have a successful business model (Chesbrough & Rosenbloom, 2002). The use of technology and its improvement through innovations add knowledge to society (Chesbrough, 2006). Thus, most of the times, in order to reach innovations is necessary some cooperation between two or more partners (Pries & Janszen, 1995). Innovations are triggered by human needs to refine daily use of products (either objects or foodstuff) and services (Dawson & Daniel, 2010). However, some firms in certain sectors of activity are not so prone to innovation and stand more in a conservative position having difficulties in the refinement of products. Thus, when they finally open up their search for new ideas, usually they'll find a positive effect in their performance results (Herstad et al., 2010). Open innovation is in a broad sense an open share of ideas, facilitated by the information technology, in order to promote the development of goods and services (Chesbrough et al., 2006). West et al. (2014) highlight that there are several trends in the future for open innovation. A specific aspect related to open innovation is user innovation. User innovation comes from the intermediate users (e.g. user firms) or by the demand side (consumer users). Many products and services are developed or refined by final users. Products and services aim to be developed in order to match as many as possible user needs. When given consumers are not satisfied with a certain product or service, they seek alternatives, or in the case of alternative absence, users tend to develop their own products and services (Bergvall-Kåreborn et al., 2014).

In order to get a final good, the inclusion of intermediates in the production process is most of the times deemed as necessary. This happens because is important to employ some machinery developed elsewhere, or to use certain raw materials mined or harvested in another place, as well as co-products and sub-products in order to transform the whole components used in the production process into a final good (Kasahara & Rodrigue, 2008). As described by Johnson and Noguera (2012) the use of intermediate inputs in the production process reaches around two-thirds of the whole international trade.

By its turn, knowledge transfer seeks to create, select, manage or distribute knowledge among users not only at present time, but also for future users (Shankar et al., 2013). Because knowledge can be found in the different people involved in processes and even the tools to carry out such processes, most of the times important knowledge is adaptable or even tacit (Rubenstein-Montano et al., 2001). Despite the availability of high technology, transfer of knowledge is sometimes difficult even inside the firm due to laborious, resistance and time-consuming processes. As a result, is important to incorporate difficulty in the analysis of knowledge transfer, recognizing that a transfer is not an act, but a process (Szulanski, 2000). Argote and Ingram (2000) have studied that there are specific processes of knowledge transfer and factors that facilitate or obstruct transfer. There are also conditions where knowledge transfer modifies positively organizational performance and premises, eventually allowing competitive advantage for organizations (Argote &Fahrenkopf, 2016).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Seafood: Any marine living organism caught from the wild or reared in aquaculture used for human or animal consumption.

Fisheries: The activity of catching fish and other living organisms from the wild aiming to be consumed as seafood. Fisheries are harvested for their value either commercial, recreational, or self-consumption.

Firm: An entity/organization that produces and/or sells goods and/or services for household consumption in order to make a profit.

Protein: Is an organic nutrient composed by one or more amino-acids that have several functions in the living organisms. Its availability or lack of is used by FAO as an indicator of wellbeing.

Rearing (Aquaculture): Husbandry methods used in the activity of producing (breeding, rearing, harvesting) aquatic organisms used as seafood or other purpose.

Production: The act of generating from inputs goods and/or services for consumption.

Consumption: The act of using adequately or not, food or any other item either for necessity or self-satisfaction.

Producer: Any individual or firm that is able to generate goods and/or services from a certain amount of raw materials. Usually the term is more adequate when applied for individuals or companies that raise animal or agricultural products.

Consumer: Any person that uses goods and/or services (e.g., food or utility items) for necessity or self-satisfaction.

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