International Educational Migration in the New Wave of Globalization

International Educational Migration in the New Wave of Globalization

Afanasyeva Irina (Rostov State University of Economics, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0111-5.ch006

Abstract

In the global world, the most important factor influencing international relations is globalization in various spheres. Within the new global environment, knowledge becomes the priority resource for economic growth and economic security that leads to increasing qualification requirements of workers. Intensive development of globalization trends under new conditions leads to strengthening the processes of international educational migration. This research is focused on international educational migration that is considered a movement of people between the countries of the world in order to obtain educational services of different levels and for different periods of time. Such movement may include schoolchildren, students, postgraduates, and doctoral students who improve their skills. The present study reveals the influence of the new wave of globalization on the nature of international educational migration in the world and analyzes the transformation processes of international educational migration, and defines the features of the effectiveness of international educational migration on the example of European countries.
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Introduction

One of the key trends of today’s world development is the growing process of globalization, which objectively has a liminal impact on various spheres of economic activity of the global community, changing the nature and the forms of international relations.

Globalization is typically understood as the process through which different economies and societies become more closely integrated and concurrent, while consequences of this process remain understudied (Nilson, 2010).

In fact, globalization has always been a basic trend in the development of the world economy, despite the contradictory acceptance of its imperatives and consequences in the world economic space. The new wave of globalization is considered as an integral part of world development, including technological and technical progress, innovation, cultural integration, integration of the market of production, labor and achievements, financial and economic markets, educational systems of different countries as a permanent mechanism with differently coordinated levels of influence on the world economy. It seems that rapid and uneven development of the economy does not allow countries get involved into integration processes to remain isolated from entering the new wave of globalization.

The world economy has become an open organizational and economic system due to the process of internationalization and transnationalization in culture, education, politics, manifested through expansion and intensification of international cooperation. Harmonization of education standards and growing availability of foreign curricula and courses contribute to the growing number of students interested in studying or continuing their education abroad. Thus, internationalization of the education process serves as one of the liminal factors in student migration making it one of the most dynamically growing international migration flows today. Along with this, intensification of international educational migration also contributes to globalization of the economy and the labor market, lowering of transportation and communication costs, growing demand for education services. Local education systems are increasingly often not able to meet this demand, and this increase the need for acquisition of knowledge and skills abroad, liberalization of migration regulation in this area.

Gradual complication and emergence of new types of the world economic relations have led to a qualitatively new stage in the development of the internationalization process, during which human society and the states enter a new phase of interaction characterized by infinity and universality — the phase of globalization. The result of globalization processes is formation of a new common space, where the subject of study are various conditions and factors that ensure the interaction of the world community subjects in the economic, political, educational, migration and other spheres (Afanasyeva, 2018).

There are research publications that describe processes and trends, typical for scientific knowledge and modern education under the influence of transformational factors of the global world, which predetermined the emergence and development of new scientific and educational trends. Education plays a primary role in personal development, organizational and economic growth and strengthening of social ties. Education as a special institution covers most of the world's population and will soon be able to actively stimulate an increase in migration educational flows. Consequently, there is a need for new strategic ideas related to the construction of global humanitarian technologies in education, international relations, global economy, politics, formation of new directions in practical activities in the fields of science and education.

In the second half of the XXth century global civilization has faced the irresistible and irreversible force of some processes, one way or another pervasive all spheres of social and economic life and creating a global system of interdependence between countries and people all over the world. Globalization processes and rapid changes in global political and economic systems have led to sharp intensification of global migration flows, formation of a fundamentally new migration situation in the world.

In this context it is important to define the key features of this process: the growth in volumes and geography of migration; the increasing importance of international migration for sustainable development of the world; transformation of the international migration flows’ structure; and dual nature of today’s migration policies.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Migrant Students: Foreign students moving from one country to another in order to improve knowledge, engage in scientific activities, get different education levels.

International Migration: The process of moving human capital from one country to another in order to implement such tasks as employment, training, accommodation, education etc.

European Education: The European Union common educational space, involving the implementation of the Bologna agreement concept, generally accepted norms and rules in scientific and educational sphere of all education levels.

Migration Policy: Generally accepted special tools and mechanisms regulating the nature and directions of migration flows.

Globalization: Transformation of the world space into a single one, where capital, goods, services, human capital move freely, where organizational actions of some subjects of the global community have a liminal impact on others.

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