International Political Communication: New Challenges and Old Uncertainty

International Political Communication: New Challenges and Old Uncertainty

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3808-1.ch001
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Abstract

The first chapter serves as an introduction to international political communication and associated terms. It dwells upon the difference of political communication in international relations and international political communication, also showing the functions and typology of the phenomenon, focusing especially on how connected international political communication is to media and how this connection further intensifies with time due to globalization processes and technological advancements of last few decades. Among the objectives attempted by the chapter is to introduce the reader to all crucial concepts of international political communication before moving in swiftly to its relation with universal codes of media in the very next chapter.
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Background

Researching international political communication is considered fairly modern in the scientific doctrine of Ukraine, an influence of the Soviet Union restricting international communication of any level with a set of strict governmental regulations. Specialists in that area are surprisingly in demand on labor market, which could be easily confirmed by how much of the search results for «international political communication» on popular Internet search services (such as Google) are educational programs of an eponymous specialty in the higher education facilities of the assorted developed countries. Not much literature available freely on the subject, creating a certain discrepancy between specialty and explanation of what it actually does in the public eyes, severely limiting research fields.

Despite published works on international political communication exist since (at the very least) 1950’s (Davison & George, 1952; Speier, 1952), most of them venture into specific retrospective cases never quite stopping (or stepping outside) for clear definition. Much more recent and detailed exploration of all things political communication by J. Gastil mentions that contemporary theories of international political communication and deliberation address the issues of the influence of world public opinion on nations. (Gastil, 2008, p. 264)

Key Terms in this Chapter

Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth: German political scientist. (b. 19 December 1916 – d. 25 March 2010)

Insight: The capacity to gain an accurate and deep understanding of an event, phenomenon or happening.

Le Monde Diplomatique: Monthly French newspaper which concentrates on analysis of politics, current affairs, and culture. Founded in 1954, publication is currently owned by Le Monde diplomatique SA, a subsidiary of daily newspaper Le Monde (which it should not be confused with), however having complete editorial autonomy.

Quasi-Concept: A concept which might be lacking in formal backing due to treating scientifically understudied areas. (Jenson, Harrison & Prange-Gstöl, 2013).

Audiovisual Media (AV): Electronic media consisting of and/or possessing both visual component and sound. Examples of audiovisual media include films (movies), television, video games, slideshows, etc.

Technology-Enhanced Language Learning (TELL): The use of digital technologies as a technological innovation in language learning, usually through the use of multimedia as a means of complementing a teaching method language teacher.

Perm-36: Also known as ITK-6, Soviet forced labor camp. Located near a village of Kuchino, northeast to the city of Perm, Russia. Built in 1946, closed In 1987.

Fourth Estate: Also Fourth Power, a term often attributed to news media and press as a direct influence on decisions, actions and longevity of traditional political estates and systems.

Estates of the Realm: Also known as Three Estates or Three Powers, a social hierarchy tradition which differentiates clergy (the First Estate), noblemanship (the Second Estate), and peasants and bourgeoisie (the Third Estate).

Framing: A theoretical concept of researching selection, presentation, accentuation and deliberation. Is inherent in storytelling organization of news media. Is also researched in the spiral of silence theory.

Globalized: Adherent and/or prone to globalization (see).

Stus, Vasyl: A Ukrainian poet, literary critic, translator and journalist. Active member of the Ukrainian dissident movement in USSR. His works were banned in Soviet Union and he himself was imprisoned until his death in Perm-36 (see). The Donetsk National University (relocated to Vinnytsia) is named after Vasyl Stus (under variant name Vasyl’ Stus) since 10 July 2016. (b. January 6, 1938 – d. September 4, 1985).

Deliberation: Process of discussion and comparison of options in the political discourse.

Universal Code of Movies: Authors term for an unaccounted complex of universally understood instruments of non-verbal communication, which is used commonly and perfected by audio-visual media, such as movies/films, television, web video, etc.

Anxiety: Feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is seen subjectively as menacing.

Spiral of Silence Theory (Schweigespirale): A political science and mass communication theory proposed by the German political scientist Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann, according to which individuals possess a fear of isolation, resulting from the idea of social group or even society in general isolating, neglecting or excluding members due to their opinions. According to theory sheer fear of isolation results in absence of vocal opinion and relative silence.

Vinnytsia: City in west-central Ukraine. Located on the banks of Southern Bug river.

Globalization: (In Commonwealth English also globalsation) a process of interaction and/or integration between people, corporations, organizations, or other entities worldwide.

Social Spectrum: Loose term often used to describe divide between population in the contexts of differences and/or interactions.

URL: Universal Resource Locator, often known simply as web address.

Façade: Outward appearance that might be hiding true intentions, event or appearance, could even be outright deceptive.

Loaded Language: Rhetoric used to specifically influence the audience via the use of phrases with strong connotations. Other names for the same concept include high-inference-, emotive language, language-persuasion and loaded terms.

Diplomatic Circles: Loose term to define socialized diplomatic platforms, including but not limited to politicians, diplomats, officials, experts in political science and international relations.

World Wide Web: Alternate name of the Internet, hence www, now often omitted in URLs.

Donetsk: Industrial city in Eastern Ukraine, located on the Kalmius river. Formerly known as Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Stalin, Stalino, Yuzovka. Since 2014 and of the time of publication remains in the zone of the war conflict and a disputed region between pro-Russian separatists and Ukraine.

Social media: A term for computer-mediated tools, which primary function is to allow companies and/or people a process of exchanging packages or separate units of information, media (including audio and video, images) in networks and other virtual forms of communication.

International Political Communication: Dynamic, cross-border, environment where exists a constant exchange of political content between states; with the participation of other actors in international relations, in which these actors defend their values and interests and substantiate their actions on the international scale in front of a worldwide audience.

Ramonet (Miguez), Ignacio: Spanish academic, journalist and writer, based primarily in Paris. (b. 5 May 1943).

Fifth Power: Continuation of Estates of the Realm usually attributed to mass media, including Internet, public opinion, the Church (since replaced as a first power by government officials), but sometimes term also refers to economic systems such as money and creation of such. Term is often attributed to Ignacio Ramonet Miguez.

Priming: Technique, in which exposure to certain stimuli produced an unconscious reaction in people. Theorized in both psychology an sociology.

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