Internationalization of Higher Education: The Methodological Critiques on the Research Related to Study Overseas and International Experience

Internationalization of Higher Education: The Methodological Critiques on the Research Related to Study Overseas and International Experience

Agung Nugroho (University of Bristol, UK) and Saud Saif Albusaidi (University of Bristol, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8085-1.ch005
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Abstract

This chapter aims to present the methodological critiques on research related to study overseas and international experience under the umbrella of the internationalization of higher education. It will critique seven research articles from three approaches: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method. The critiques will be addressed to the research steps that have been taken by the researchers from their philosophical stands to their findings. The first part of this chapter will present the critiques on qualitative research articles. Then, the second part will discuss the critiques on quantitative research articles. The last part will deliver the critiques on mixed-method research articles. Overall, this chapter attempts to discuss any methodological weaknesses of those research projects and present feedback on their steps using various references on research methodology. The chapter will provide an in-depth reflection for the researchers on conducting their inquiries.
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Introduction

In recent years, the term internationalization has been undoubtedly very common in the context of higher education institutions (HEI). It has been recognized as their response toward globalization's ever-changing era (Bennet & Kane, 2011). In the era of transformations that happen in various aspects of human life (Bondarenko & Aleshkovski, 2019), HEIs are demanded to generate certain goals to face the era's challenges (Waller et al., 2019). They also need to propose various changes in their routines, such as teaching, research, and community services (Kayıkçı & Ercan, 2013). One way to realize them is by creating initiatives of transforming themselves into institutions that work in their national and international contexts (Altbach et al., 2009). These initiatives have globally come to be known as Internationalization. As elaborated by Knight (1994), it is “the process of integrating an international dimension into the teaching/learning, research and service functions of a university or college” (p. 3). Many HEIs across the globe have been integrating this phrase into their university programs by equipping their institutions with the international standard of teaching, world-class research, and global reputations. They carry out all their daily academic activities by reflecting on the international level's dimension (De Wit, 2013). They believe that doing those activities in such ways can increase their university's quality, leading to their success in coping with the potential competitions in the globalized world such as international students’ recruitment, league tables, and the demands of producing high-quality graduates.

There are many ways universities implement their strategies to cope with their internationalization plan (Soliman, Anchor, & Taylor, 2018). One of them is by sending their academic members to study overseas under the programs of further study, conference, join research, and student and staff exchange (Kaowiwattanakul, 2016; Kouijzer, 1994; Paige, 2005). Internationalization is nowadays closely affiliated with student mobility (Alpenidze, 2015) and personnel mobility and education policy sharing and practices (Henard, Diamond, & Reseveare, 2012). This statement is supported by Teichler (2017), arguing that there are significant increases in students' mobility, intensified academic and administrative staff exchange, and ongoing changes in educational programs under the programs labeled as Internationalization. These activities can potentially improve the quality of universities’ human resources, which potentially improves the quality of university programs such as teaching, research, administration, and public services. In turn, this increasing quality will be able to support the success of the university's internationalization project.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Internationalization of Higher Education: This term is understood as efforts made by higher education institutions to internationalize their campuses or to use the international standards of teaching, research, and community service in their daily routine.

Internationalization Strategy: This term means the activities conducted by institutions to realize their agenda or plan to internationalize their campuses.

Study Overseas: This term is translated as the activity of gaining knowledge by people or pupils or students in educational institutions away from their home countries.

Validity: This term is understood as the quality of some objects or research or goods that is acceptable among those who assess or experience or use them.

Critique: This term is understood as statements or arguments made to show the weaknesses and provide feedback to something, people, goods, things, or objects.

Credibility: This term means that the quality of some objects or research or goods that is trusted or worth believing in.

International Experience: This term is the occasions that are faced by people or pupils or students involving other people, systems, concepts, or cultures from different or various nationalities.

Research Approach: This term is the details or steps taken by people or pupils or students or researchers to work on their research projects.

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