Internet-of-Things-Enabled Pre-Screening for Diseases: A Novel Approach for Improving the Conventional Methodology and Paradigm for Screening for Non-Communicable Diseases

Internet-of-Things-Enabled Pre-Screening for Diseases: A Novel Approach for Improving the Conventional Methodology and Paradigm for Screening for Non-Communicable Diseases

Thierry Oscar Edoh (Technical University of Munich, Germany)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7131-5.ch001

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the screening for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which in certain cases are likely caused by infectious diseases. The screening for NCDs in this specific case remains challenging since the convergence between both non-infectious and infectious diseases is less investigated. This chapter, therefore, aims at reviewing and addressing the challenges and limitation of the conventional methodologies for screening for diseases, in general. The chapter further proposes an innovative screening paradigm based on the internet of things technology. The chapter presents the state of the art on the conventional screening for diseases, discusses the fundamental difference between screening for diseases and diseases surveillance and monitoring, and the difference between screening for diseases and diseases diagnostics.
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1. Introduction

Screening for diseases is a tool for predicting and/or early detecting diseases with the main objective of timely treating the detected diseases. It is, therefore, a key component of the care delivery system (Saquib, Saquib, & Ioannidis, 2015). The screening pursues the objective of reducing morbidity and mortality by early detecting, preventing, and predicting diseases is the main role assigned to the screening for diseases.

The screening for diseases rises various controversies and questions regarding its benefits or efficiency. Screening for diseases can be costly and people can be false-positive or false-negative screened (Lee, Huang, & Zelen, 2004), Hence, the follow-up treatment can be hazardous, or the disease would not at all be prevented. It is then worth investigating the underlying methodology for screening.

Nazmus Saquib et al. have reported cases where medical experts recommend against the screening for diseases. They discussed the role and benefit of screening and presented the case of screening for breast cancer in women aged from 40 to 49 years and screening for prostate in healthy men whose outcomes do not show any benefit (Saquib et al., 2015). In Maxim, Niebo, and Utell (2014b), Maxim et al. had pointed out the recommendation formulated by the Medicare Evidence Development and Coverage Advisory Committee (MEDCAC) against the screening procedure for certain patient group. They argued recommendation by the fact of lacking evidence supporting the benefits of screening of diseases in the target groups.

Despite the recommendation against the procedure of screening for diseases for a certain group of individuals and certain diseases, this study revealed a positive impact of the screening on the mortality. The question that arises here is to why this recommendation is made? Why there exist controversies regarding the screening for diseases? It is worth investigating the causes why screening procedure does not provide benefit to all patient groups. The inaccuracy of screening test outcomes undoubtedly plays an important role here. Though, what (negatively) impacts the quality of the test-outcomes?

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