Internet of Things (IoT): A Study on Key Elements, Protocols, Application, Research Challenges, and Fog Computing

Internet of Things (IoT): A Study on Key Elements, Protocols, Application, Research Challenges, and Fog Computing

P. Suresh (Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, India), S. Koteeswaran (Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, India), N. Malarvizhi (Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, India) and R. H. Aswathy (Vel Tech Rangarajan Dr. Sagunthala R&D Institute of Science and Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5972-6.ch007
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The physical world entities are communicated via advanced communication technologies without human intervention. Such an evolving advanced version of automation technology is internet of things (IOT), where each smart device is provided with unique identification. The integration part of such technology comprises key elements, protocols, applications, and research challenges. This chapter discusses such terms and addresses the research challenges. The concept of fog computing is analyzed by cognitive approach. Fog computing localizes the processing information and optimizes the communication and storage among enormous smart devices. In addition, it favourably mitigates the need of bandwidth size and delay in communication.
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The term IoT is spawned by Kevin Ashton in 1999, he explained the potential of net of factors. IoT is a machine of interrelated computing gadgets, mechanical and digital machines, where gadgets, animals, humans are furnished with UID (Unique Identifier) and capable of transfer records over a community without require any H2H or H2M interaction. IoT has grown within the confluence of exiting technology like MEMS ,micro services, wireless technology and internet. Devices embedded with electronics, softwares, sensors and community connectivity that allows object to collect and exchange data. The IoT empower physical objects to engage with every other to percentage international information and appearing collectively to accomplish a selection. Currently we could connect approximately 12 billion gadgets over the internet and it is estimated that around 50 billion gadgets could be connected by 2020,(Ala Al-Fuquha et al.,2015).This new technology will playing a remarkable role in everyday life to increase productivity, improve efficiency in all fields like healthcare, home automation, industrial, retail, logistics and smart applications etc. However, challenges have been recorded as in term of security, storage, interoperability and some other cases.

Figure 1.

Overall architectural view of IoT


The outline of the benefaction of this paper relative to the contemporary literature inside the area summarized as follows. In section 2, we present the crucial key elements of IoT which include sensing, communication, cloud consolidation and capture and delivery of data. In section 3, we identify the most appropriate protocols which is suitable for IoT such as MQTT,XMPP, CoAP, AMQP and DTLS with its detailed architecture. In section 4, we present the application of IoT in various fields. In section 5,we identify the most common issues and research challenges.


Key Elements Of Iot

Smart applications in IoT are driven by the composition of sensors and actuators, connectivity, people and processes. Major key elements of IoT are sensing, communication, cloud based capture and consolidation and delivery of information, that depicted in Figure 2.


In IoT, the first step is sensing. It is a detection of physical presence and the conversion of the data into signal that can be readable by an equipment or observer. It can be done by any wearable device, smart device, wall mounted device or fixed device in an instrument. The sensing can be used in biological experiment, manufacturing, machinery, aerospace, robotics etc. According to needs, sensors gets varies and many types of sensors are available. They are pressure sensor, color sensor, humidity sensor, ultrasonic sensor, temperature sensor, gas sensor, etc.. Organizations like Wemo presents lot of smart objects or devices and mobile application, that enable to monitor and control home equipments and millions of smart devices (Palo Alto et al.,2014). For example, biochips on cattle, heart tracking implants, manufacturing line sensors in factories, vehicles with integrated sensors, or area operation devices that help fire fighters,(Li et al.,2011).


Data collection and manage message delivery are the main part of IoT and Communication Infrastructure can be enable that dual directional communication. Transmitting the information sensed at a sensor level is send to the cloud based services for further processing for communication. Depending upon the range, the communication device is used, for instance Bluetooth, Zigbee, Z-wave, 6LowPan, Thread, Wifi and so on. There are Radio Frequency Identification tags and that can be active, passive, semi passive/active. Active RFID tags are powered with the aid of battery even as passive ones do no longer want battery. Semi-passive/lively tags use board electricity when wanted.

Figure 2.

Key elements of IoT


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