Interoperability in Marine Sensor Networks through SWE Services: The RITMARE Experience

Interoperability in Marine Sensor Networks through SWE Services: The RITMARE Experience

Alessandro Oggioni (Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council (IREA-CNR), Italy), Paolo Tagliolato (Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR), Italy), Cristiano Fugazza (Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council (IREA-CNR), Italy), Monica Pepe (Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council (IREA-CNR), Italy), Stefano Menegon (Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council (ISMAR-CNR), Italy), Fabio Pavesi (Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council (IREA-CNR), Italy) and Paola Carrara (Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment, National Research Council (IREA-CNR), Italy)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0700-0.ch009
OnDemand PDF Download:
$30.00
List Price: $37.50

Abstract

The rapid growth and development in different fields related to sensors has, together with the huge increase of devices due to the decrease of device costs, led to a shift from traditional monitoring, where the data collected is not subject to any management actions, to sensor/processing networks, where in the life cycle more stages are devoted to make the data accessible. Data integration is the first step in advanced environmental monitoring, but assuring that heterogeneous systems can interoperate is still a challenge. The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative defines a framework to address this issue, offering a set of standard models and interfaces to improve sensor interoperability and to face quality issues in the reliability of sensors. The need for seamless access to observations from marine sensors has been the focus of several research projects. This chapter presents the actions taken in the development of the Spatial Data Infrastructure for project RITMARE to ease the adoption of SWE within the Italian marine community overcoming the main constraints in SWE adoption.
Chapter Preview
Top

Introduction

The rapid growth and development in different fields related to sensors, such as in micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS), wireless communication, and digital electronics has, together with the huge increase of devices due to the decrease of their costs, led to a shift in environmental disciplines (Papp & Hakkesteegt, 2008): While in traditional monitoring data collections were not managed according to specific strategies, in sensor/processing networks more stages of data life cycle are devoted to trace data acquisition processes and distribution. Environmental Sensor Networks allow for increasing the number of observations and measurements that are made accessible: This improves the understanding of complex and fragile environments such as coastal zones. Indeed, in order to exploit the variety and volume of observations, it is necessary to adopt an integrated approach on distributed, mobile, fixed, and asynchronous sensors from different networks, as suggested by Hart and Martinez (2006). In the last few years, for the sciences of the environment, several initiatives were undertaken to allow for data discovery and accessibility, as ruled by standard protocols and application programming interfaces. In the past, the research work was characterized by a phase where the collected data were exchanged only after a painstaking formatting and harmonisation, according to a shared format. More recently, data integration is considered the prerequisite to advanced environmental monitoring and sustainable development, but the capabilities of different systems to work together has been realized only recently (Barnaghia, Ganza, & Abangara, 2011; Havlik et al., 2011) and, under many viewpoints, it is still a challenge. In particular, managing different and heterogeneous data sources, of several types, is an actual critical requirement for environmental monitoring, in particular in the field of marine sustainable development, for which the integration of information from different disciplines and domains (e.g. economic indicators, traditional GIS sources, output of oceanographic models, time-series of sensors monitoring the environment continuously) is a key point (Diviacco & Leadbetter, 2017, chapter 2 this book). In a vision for a Digital Earth in the modern era, Al Gore (1998) and, more recently, McKee (2015) argued for the creation of interoperable systems for environmental science, buisiness and policies and for free and open standards to implement them.

To achieve complete data integration, the actuation of concepts like interoperability are fundamental in order to realize a linkup among data and to enable across-the-board analyses for the advice of decision-makers and public stakeholders dealing with sustainable development policies. The dimensions of such linkup cover spatial (e.g. location, depth, footprint), temporal (e.g. time stamps, time zones), and thematic (e.g. parameter, measurement unit, domain, quality, methods) attributes. The involved domains and community of practices have their consolidated traditions in data management. The emerging sensor data deluge (Baraniuk, 2011) is requiring novel methods and tools for data management. Several marine observing systems (GOOS1, EuroGOOS2, IOOS3, IMOS4), and marine research initiatives (ODIP5, EuroFleets6, SeaDataNet7, FixO38, NeXOS9, ScheMA10, JericoNext11, EnvEurope12, RITMARE13) have focused on the requirements for interoperable access to observations from marine sensors. This topic has become more and more important with the emergence of climate change as a world-class issue, because the detection of sudden anomalies is now a priority for early warning systems, and the monitoring of environmental parameters is fundamental in order to understand ongoing phenomena and to create sustainable development scenarios.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book:
Reset