Introduction to Additive Manufacturing

Introduction to Additive Manufacturing

K. R. Balasubramanian (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India), V. Senthilkumar (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India) and Divakar Senthilvel (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 24
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4054-1.ch001
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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is also referred to as 3D printing, rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, rapid manufacturing, desktop manufacturing, direct digital manufacturing, layered manufacturing, generative manufacturing, layered manufacturing, solid free-form fabrication, rapid prototype, tool-less model making, etc. It is emerging as an important manufacturing technology. It is the process of building up of layer-by-layer by depositing a material to make a component using the digital 3D model data. The main advantages of AM are mass customization, minimisation of waste, freedom of designing complex structures, and ability to print large structures. AM is broadly applicable to all classes of materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and biological systems. The AM methods used for producing complex geometrical shapes are classified based either on energy source (laser, electron beam) used or the material feed stock (powder feed, wire feed).
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Historical Perspective

The origin for the additive manufacturing can be traced to the development of two major fields namely, Topography and Photo sculpture.

  • 1.

    Topography: Topography is defined as a layered method to produce moulds for topographical relief maps in the early 1900’s by Blanther. Both, positive and negative 3D exteriors were collected from several wax plates that were cut through the topographical outline.

  • 2.

    Photo sculpture: Photo sculpture is a technique which is used to create models of 3D objects. The technique includes capturing photographs at once using 24 cameras at equal spaces in an annular space followed by capturing the silhouette of the snap to shape 1/24th of the cylindrical portion of an item (Asiabanpour et al., 2008).

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Preliminary Works In Additive Manufacturing

Development in AM process sustained over 1960’s and 1970’s and quite a few patents were made on various devices. A few of them are

  • 1.

    A method to fabricate substances from powdered supplies by warming particles close by and joining it by means of power sources such as laser beam, plasma or even electron beam [Ciraud, 1972].

  • 2.

    Method to create plastic designs by 3D selective polymerization on a photosensitive polymer material at the junction of dual laser beams [Swainson, 1977].

  • 3.

    A novel kind of photopolymer AM process to make an object in layers. A disguise regulates the contact of the UV rays while making a cross-section of the product. [Kodama, 1981].

  • 4.

    Mirror systems were used to guide the laser beam to polymer over an x-y plotter [Herbert, 1982].

Key Terms in this Chapter

Distortion: The act of twisting or altering something out of its true state.

Miniscule: Tiny particles of material to be printed.

Post-Process: The final step in the additive manufacturing process, where products receive finishing touches such as smoothing and painting.

Cladding: A thin layer of coating applied over a material or structure.

Polymerization: Process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

Residual Stress: A kind of stress that persist in a solid material even after the source of the stresses has been removed. Residual stress can be desirable or undesirable.

Prototype: A first or preliminary version of a product from which other forms are developed.

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