Introduction to Genomics Sequencing

Introduction to Genomics Sequencing

Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8559-8.ch001
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Abstract

At the outset, we defined genome, and explored the initiation of the Human Genome Sequencing project (HGSP). A synopsis of the various national and international experts and pioneers who were involved in the sequencing project were identified. This team eventually became the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (IHGSC). The nations that collaborated and contributed toward the successful sequencing were basically the United States (U.S.), France, the United Kingdom, Japan, Italy, and China. The accomplishment of the human genome sequencing was completed at ahead of schedule and by March 25, 2003 the project had accomplished all the publicized objectives of the project. The potential career paths and employment opportunities associated with the human genome sequencing were identified.
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What Is Genomics?

In order to develop insights into genomics, it is relevant to understand how the human body consists of trillions of cells. These cells contain the entire genome. The complete set of inherited genetic materials is encoded in our deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA). During reproductive behavior, the parents’ sperm and egg (DNA) combine to contribute a genome entire amount of genetic information to the fertilized embryo. Scientifically, since the same amount of genetic information is present in the cells which eventually make up an organism, humans are usually at risk of having single gene diseases inherited from parents or carry complex diseases which parents have in their genes. The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) in the twenty-first century defines genomics as the “study of the entire human genome”.

Based on ongoing scientific analysis there are numerous untapped potential benefits of genomics regarding:

  • Improving the health of the public (not only the actions of single genes, but also the interactions of multiple genes with each other and with the environments.

  • Differentiating genomics from genetics (functions and effects of single genes). Hartwell’s (2004) definition of genomics is “the study of the whole genome.”

  • Developing and the application of more effective mapping, sequencing and bioinformatics computational tools.

  • Seamless corporation among genomic scientists which include molecular biologists who are familiar with the techniques for linkage analysis, physical mapping, and the sequencing of genomes to generate detailed data which are subjected to analysis using high-speed computer facility and the understanding of genome which is the entire collection of chromosomes which are present in the nucleus of each cell of an individual organism (Hartwell, 2004).

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Modern Pioneers In Genomic Science

What scientists know today about the accomplishment of the human genome sequencing will be incomplete without being aware of the contributions of these prominent scientists and scientific research centers where several dedicated scientists sacrificed so much time to conduct scientific research on the application of genomic science in medicine, preventive sciences, public health microbial scientific research, environmental health, archeological science and knowledge about demography and other related disciplines.

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