Introduction to International Transportation and Logistics

Introduction to International Transportation and Logistics

Gokce Cicek Ceyhun (Bursa Technical University, Turkey) and Hilal Yıldırır Keser (Uludağ Üniversitesi, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1397-2.ch001

Abstract

Logistics is the management of the flow of goods, information, and resources between the point of origin and the point of consumption. It is a business concept that evolved during the 1950s due to the increasing complexity of supplying businesses with materials and transporting products in an increasingly globalized supply chain. The complexity led to a call for experts in the process called logisticians. Work in logistics involves the integration of information, transportation, inventory, warehousing, material handling, packaging, human resources, and sometimes security. The goal is to manage the life cycle of a project from birth to completion. The main functions of a qualified logistician include inventory management, purchasing, transportation, warehousing, consultation, and organizing and planning of these activities. Logisticians combine a professional knowledge of each of these functions to coordinate resources in an organization.
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Background

The term of logistics which has gained importance in recent years, it is a very old concept. The word is derived from the Greek word “logisticos” and it means “science of calculating” or “skill in calculating” (Voortman, 2004).

When looking at the development of the logistics concept, it is seen that the first use dates back to the 1700s. Initially, it was included in the literature as a military origin concept. In this context, logistics has been used to express the design and implementation of all elements that will support the operational capability of a military unit, the provision of the relevant equipment and materials, and all necessary planning (Gourdin, 2006). In other words, logistics in the military field is defined as the activities carried out in order to provide the necessary support items and service support to the fighters in accordance with their strategy and tactics (Bulut, 2007). The first use of logistics in the military field also shed light on the scope of logistic activities that gained importance in the field of trade in the subsequent process. Logistics, which has been examined in a multi-faceted way with the science of economics, has become a field of expertise and work today (Long, 2003).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Storage: leaving, holding, or placement of materials or goods with the intention of retrieving them at a later time.

Outsourcing: outsourcing is the action of getting services or goods from a foreign supplier.

Inventory: Inventory refers to the goods available for sale and raw materials that are used for producing goods.

Supply Chain: S upply chain is the network of all the organizations, individuals, activities, resources, and technology from the supplier to the manufacturer or to the end user.

Customs Clearance: The permission that is presented to a national customs authority grants to imported goods can enter to the country or to exported goods can leave the country.

Handling: Integration or coordination of packaging and operations for movement of goods and materials.

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