Introduction to IoT Technologies and Its Applications

Introduction to IoT Technologies and Its Applications

Neeta Yadav (KNIT Sultanpur, India) and Neelendra Badal (KNIT Sultanpur, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9574-8.ch012
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The internet of things is everywhere. It is an emerging and wide scope of study. Every day there is a new addition to this technology. It is simply defined as a network over which a collection of things communicate with each other using internet as a medium of communication. It is also sharing information with each other for the ease, welfare, and convenience of human beings. It makes human life easier. About one trillion devices are expected to connect with this technology in the upcoming future (most probably in 2025). Each and every year its popularity increases. It makes smart health; provides more safety, comfort, and convenience; and also increases wisdom. IoT is one of the platforms of today's smart city and smart energy management systems. This chapter explores IoT technologies and applications.
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This chapter covers technologies of IoT, development tools (software, middleware, and hardware), architecture, issues, and various applications of IoT. This chapter basically focuses on IoT technologies that are RFID, ZigBee, WiFi, sensors, and smartphones and its various applications like smart energy, smart home, smart farming, smart healthcare, etc. In this chapter, the internet of things is fully covered from each and every perspective. This chapter provides each and every detail regarding IoT and also its recent achievements.

The main motive of writing this chapter is to provide quality content to the beginner as well as those who are going to do something new in this field. It may act as a tutorial to them and also provide depth knowledge of IoT technologies and applications. Our main concern is to provide quality content to the reader and target audience (Students, Researcher, and Project developer). For starting any research, project related to IoT, it’s very necessary to have basic knowledge and information for carrying out quality work, so this chapter covers almost all topics related to IoT. This chapter is explained in an easy manner and written in simple English language so it is approachable, understandable, and acceptable to everyone.

Nowadays, the internet is not only connecting people, but it is also connecting a thing that’s why it is called the internet of things. IoT is based on various technology and it has various applications like smart city, smart computing, and smart health, etc. in short this technology adds smartness to various things. Its adoption is growing very fastly in a day to day life. In the coming future, it may be renamed as the internet of everything. The rest of the things are discussed in detail inside the chapter.

Internet of Things

The Word “Internet of Things” first came into existence by Kevin Ashton (Cruz et al. 2018), and (Wu et al.2017). He Coined this term. In simple words, the Internet of Things is basically an ecosystem of connected physical objects.

It is a network of physical objects that are interconnected to each other. As everyone knows data, images, books, commerce, records, etc. are created for the people, by the people, and about people. So if everything is connected to the internet, human life becomes easier. In figure 1, the internet of things is defined.

Figure 1.



When things have the ability to sense and they start communicating with each other for taking appropriate decision and giving an alert about change in the environment are defined as the internet of things. With the help of sensor internet of things are able to collect and exchange data. Things interact and collaborate with other things with the help of a sensor. This technology adds smartness in a day to day life. It is very necessary for human in the modern world. IoT is everywhere and it has the properties of anytime, anyplace, and anything connection. Five things are required for IoT that makes it work that is “Things, IP Protocol, Internet, Sensor, and Mobile”.

Why IoT is needed?

IoT is needed because of the following reason:

  • For the dynamic control of industry and daily life.

  • To stop the wastage of resource and utilize the resources in an improved way.

  • It is responsible for establishing a better relationship between human and nature.

  • For universal transport and internetworking purposes.

  • For accessibility and usability purposes.

  • For technologies integrator.

In Figure 2, the properties of IoT are discussed.

Figure 2.



IoT provides anytime connection whether it is daytime or night or on move. It also has the property of anything connection, for example, it provides the connection between PC, Human 2 Human and Human to Thing. And the most important property of IoT is anyplace connection whether indoor or outdoor. These three properties of IoT make it more successful and acceptable in day to day life.

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