Introduction to Machine Learning and Its Application

Introduction to Machine Learning and Its Application

Ladly Patel (Dayananda Sagar University, India) and Kumar Abhishek Gaurav (Dayananda Sagar University, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 29
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2718-4.ch014

Abstract

In today's world, a huge amount of data is available. So, all the available data are analyzed to get information, and later this data is used to train the machine learning algorithm. Machine learning is a subpart of artificial intelligence where machines are given training with data and the machine predicts the results. Machine learning is being used in healthcare, image processing, marketing, etc. The aim of machine learning is to reduce the work of the programmer by doing complex coding and decreasing human interaction with systems. The machine learns itself from past data and then predict the desired output. This chapter describes machine learning in brief with different machine learning algorithms with examples and about machine learning frameworks such as tensor flow and Keras. The limitations of machine learning and various applications of machine learning are discussed. This chapter also describes how to identify features in machine learning data.
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Background

The term machine learning first came into existence by Arthur Samuel in the year 1959 in the area of computer gaming and artificial intelligence. In year 1997,Tom Mitchell gave definition that “A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some task T and some performance measure P, if its performance on T, as measured by P, improves with experience E. Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence where the computer gets the ability to learn automatically, and it improves the results from previous learning experience without programming explicitly, (Mitchell, 1997). It accesses data and learns from it. The goal of machine learning is to allow computers to learn by themselves automatically without human interference. This also reduces the complex coding previously done by a programmer to develop an application.

With a lot of beneficial uses, the business industries took no time to realize the fact that they need to use machine learning to increase their calculation potential to stay ahead of other competitors. Some large projects include:

  • GoogleBrain, in the year 2012, Jeff Dean created a deep neural network, which was designed keeping more focus on images and videos for pattern detection.

  • AlexNet, in the year 2012 which gave the use of GPU and created ReLU (an Activation function) by winning a competition called ImageNet.

  • DeepFace, in the year 2014, was the project started by Facebook claimed to have precision as humans in recognizing the people.

  • OpenAI, in the year 2015 created by Elon Musk, is a non-profit organization focusing on creating a safe artificial intelligence to benefit humanity.

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