Introduction to Smart City and Agricultural Revolution: Big Data and Internet of Things (IoT)

Introduction to Smart City and Agricultural Revolution: Big Data and Internet of Things (IoT)

Rajesh Angadi (Mumbai University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3142-5.ch022

Abstract

In this chapter, a discussion is presented about what Big Data and Internet of Things (IoT) really is and what intricacies are used while building big data and internet of things. Further Big Data and Internet of Things have been used for building an application used for Smart City & Agriculture. A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate multiple information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. Smart city's goal is to improve quality of life with technology to improve the efficiency of services and meet residents' needs. Smart agriculture approach is to develop, transform and reorient agricultural development under new realities of climate change. It increases productivity enhances resilience (adaptation), reduces mitigation with achievement of national food security and development goals. This chapter includes detailed discussion on Smart City and Smart Agriculture along with planning, designing as well as various approaches used to build and implement them effectively.
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Introduction

At present, most companies store data in inconsistent formats and also the data is scattered on a variety of servers. It is not uncommon to hear the phrase “Data Rich, but Information Poor” in the context of enterprise information systems. (Ferrao, 2006). This graveyard of information makes it extremely difficult to locate a particular data set and make base decisions on it. (Apache Hadoop, 2014).

Figure 1.

Reference model for data visualization: Data visualization relates Business Performance Management (Rajesh Angadi, 2016)

(Source: Designed by Rajesh Angadi)

Many companies are seeing a loss in efficiency and an increase in development costs due to “islands of information”. This is the reason we need a technology called Big Data which works on the three Vs namely Volume, Variety and Velocity. There is a great deal of opportunity if companies can unlock the potential of data by using big data analytics. Big Data and analytics enable enterprises to generate greater insights and improve efficiency or develop new products, services or business models. However, there are many considerations about source of the data to get actionable insights. Successful Big Data and analytics initiatives involve a variety of decisions from mapping business strategy to use cases to making the right technical choices to implement a cost effective system. Organizations also need to consider aspects such as data governance, privacy, organizational change and talent management. As Big Data technologies evolve at a rapid pace and analytics make it possible to extract greater insights, Big Data and analytics are set to become a mainstay in an enterprise.

Key Terms in this Chapter

IoE (Internet of Everything): The network of physical objects, devices, vehicles, buildings and other items which are embedded with electronics, software, sensors and network connectivity which enables these objects to collect and exchange data.

API (Application Programming Interface): A set of routines, protocols and tools for building software applications. The API specifies how software components should interact and APIs are used when programming graphical user interface (GUI) components. (Source: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/A/API.html ).

AWS (Amazon Web Services): A collection of remote computing services, also called web services, which make up a cloud-computing platform offered by Amazon.com. These services operate from 11 geographical regions across the world.

TVO (Total Value of Ownership): or total value of opportunity is a methodology of measuring and analysing the business value of IT investments. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_value_of_ownership ).

JSON (Java Script Object Notation): A lightweight data interchange format. It is easy for humans to read and write. It is easy for machines to parse and generate.

SQL (Structured Query Language): A special purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS) or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).

NoSQL (NO Structured Query Language): NoSQL (originally referring to “non SQL” or “non-relational”) database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data which is modelled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.

DSS (Decision Support System): A computer based information system that supports business or organizational decision making activities.

GIS (Geographic Information Systems): A system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present all types of spatial or geographical data.

VRT (Variable Rate Technology): Refers to a technology that is used to enable the Variable Rate Application of materials in Precision agriculture. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable_Rate_Technology ).

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): The wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The tags contain electronically stored information.

OS (Operating System): System software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operating_system ).

VRA (Variable Rate Application): Refers to the application of a material such that the rate of application is based on the precise location or qualities of the area that the material is being applied to. Variable Rate Application can be, Map Based or Sensor Based. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variable_Rate_Application ).

GPRS (General Packet Radio Service): A packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system's global system for mobile communications (GSM). (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Packet_Radio_Service ).

HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language): A: mark-up language for describing web documents (web pages). HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. A mark-up language is a set of mark-up tags. HTML documents are described by HTML tags. Each HTML tag describes different document content.

SMS (Short Messaging Service): A text messaging service component of phone, Web or mobile communication systems. It uses standardized communications protocols to allow fixed line or mobile phone devices to exchange short text messages.

HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System): A Java based file system that provides scalable and reliable data storage and it was designed to span large clusters of commodity servers. HDFS has demonstrated production scalability of up to 200 PB of storage and a single cluster of 4500 servers, supporting close to a billion files and blocks.

LAN (Local Area Network): A computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory or office building.

UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles): Commonly known as a drone and also referred by several other names is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. The flight of UAVs may be controlled either autonomously by on-board computers or by the remote control of a pilot on the ground or in another vehicle. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unmanned_aerial_vehicle ).

WAN (Wireless Area Network): A telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance. Wide area networks often are established with leased telecommunication circuits.

YAML (Yet Another Mark-up Language): A human readable data serialization format that takes concepts from programming languages such as C, Perl and Python, and ideas from XML and the data format of electronic mail. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YAML ).

PA (Precision Agriculture): Satellite farming or site specific crop management (SSCM) is a farming management concept based on observing, measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precision_agriculture ).

GPS (Global Positioning System): A space based navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.

XML (Extended Mark-up Language): A mark-up language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format which is both human readable and machine readable. (Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XML ).

GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, Originally Groupe Spécial Mobile): A standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones.

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