Introduction to Smart Grid and Micro-Grid Systems: Related Environmental Issues to Global Changes Are the Major Concerns to the Globe Interest

Introduction to Smart Grid and Micro-Grid Systems: Related Environmental Issues to Global Changes Are the Major Concerns to the Globe Interest

Safwan Nadweh (Tishreen University, Syria) and Zeina Barakat (Tishreen University, Syria)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8030-0.ch015
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This chapter describes the upcoming technology for electrical power systems that gives the appropriate solution for the integration of the distributed energy resources. In this chapter, different categories of smart grids have been classified, and the advantages, weakness, and opportunities of each one, are given in addition to determining its own operating conditions. Micro-grids are the most common kind of smart grid. It has been classified under different criteria, such as architecture with different topology (connected mode, island mode, etc.) and demand criteria (simple micro grids, multi-DG, utility) and by capacity into simple micro-grid, corporate micro-grid, and independent micro-grid, and by AC/DC type to DC micro-grids, AC micro-grids, Hybrid micro-grids. Finally, most familiar Micro-grid components have been discussed such as an energy management system along with several types of control and communication systems in addition to the economic study of a micro-grids.
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Distributed Energy Resources

During the last decades, Implementation of DRs has been gradually increasing in electricity generation. Typically DRs refer to small scales and storage technologies with capability less than 250 Kw. such as Renewable energy (solar power, wind power, etc), electrical vehicles and Combined heat power units. Fig (1) shows the contribution of renewable energy in electricity production for 2020 (CEN-CENELEC-ETSI, 2012).

Figure 1.

Renewable energy participation in electricity production for 2020


Although the huge benefits introduced by DERs, it still show a many challenges that can Restrict its deployment.

In (Colson et al., 2011), reverse power flow as the generation capacity for one area with number of DRs exceeds local demand is one of the biggest challenges that affect the protection schemes and could result in network congestion, in addition the technical concerns.

Installed DRs with power systems has many advantages that can improve the performance of power systems. Benefits related to using DRs can be classified as:

  • 1.

    For Costumers: DRs increase the potential of participation of end users in both electricity market transactions and power system operation with bigger space of freedom.

  • 2.

    For Power Systems:

    • a.

      The overall losses through transmission system is reduced as the results of placing generation units closer to the end users.

    • b.

      High power quality and independent power.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Hybrid Micro-Grid: Northern Power Systems has a proven record in integrating our distributed wind turbines with solar, diesel gensets or other power sources in microgrids.

Smart Grid: An electricity supply network that uses digital communications technology to detect and react to local changes in usage.

Energy Management System: An energy management system (EMS) is a system of computer-aided tools used by operators of electric utility grids to monitor, control, and optimize the performance of the generation and/or transmission system. The computer technology is also referred to as SCADA/EMS or EMS/SCADA.

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