Investigating Factors Influencing Third Sector Social Enterprise Managers' Career Orientations: A Conceptual Framework

Investigating Factors Influencing Third Sector Social Enterprise Managers' Career Orientations: A Conceptual Framework

Chi Maher (St. Mary's University Twickenham, London, UK)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2537-0.ch011
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Abstract

This chapter proposes conceptual framework that explores factors that influence managerial career orientations (self-perceived talents and abilities, basic values and the evolved sense of motives and needs that influences a person's career-related decisions. The argument put forward is that demographic (age, gender, social class, marital status, ethnicity, professional and educational qualifications); societal and organisational factors (government policies, labour market conditions, diversification of income streams, organisation size, structure and culture) will influence small third sector manager's career orientations. Identifying and understanding the career orientations of managers provide organisations with greater awareness of employee career needs and the ability to target career management effectively. The results indicate positive outcomes in organisational commitment, improved productivity and staff retention. This chapter concludes with a summary of finding, implications and future research directions.
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Introduction

Asserted by various authors (Schein, 1990; Feldman and Bolino, 1996; Coetzee and Schreuder, 2008; Guan, Wen, Xiaohua, Haiyang, Wei, L., Liu, Wang, Zhang, and Dong; 2013) organisational ability to enhance career management efficiently can be improved by identifying and understanding the career orientations of managers and to provide organisations with greater awareness of employee career needs. Targeting career management efficiently has been a challenge across all organisational sectors and is particularly interesting in the contemporary context of the small third sector social enterprise. Third sector social enterprise development began in the nineteenth century in the evaluation of social economy and incorporated organizations such as, mutual benefits societies, and co-operatives (Dart, 2004; Hines, 2005). Social enterprises are defined as enterprises that trade to meet social/environmental goals (Department of Trade and Industry, 2002). The concept of social enterprise has achieved policy recognition in many countries. These types of social businesses became more prominent in the United States during the late 1970s and 1980s in response to the economic downturn and major cutbacks in government spending (Kerlin, 2006; Young, 2006).

Social enterprises in Europe also gained momentum during the economic downturn in the 1970. As the downturn led to cuts in government budgets across Europe, reducing the states’ ability to provide unemployment assistance and job reintegration (Crimmins & Keil, 1983; Eikenberry and Kluver, 2004). This paved the way for the emergence of social enterprise as a widely accepted concept of addressing socio-economic problems due to a necessity resulting out of state reduction in funding. Moreover, social enterprises are an integral part of the third sector and contribute to the modernization and delivery of public services in the UK. The sector mission is to achieve social goals (for example, improving the community, environment, economic well-being, health and social care) (National Council for Voluntary Organisations, 2009; 2015). The sector organizations operate within a range of institutional, legal and financial constraints. The sector is self-governing which allows stakeholders such as, service users, volunteers, workers and managerial staff to have a say in policy development and service delivery procedures (Kendall, 2003; Anheier, 2005).

Several authors view the sector organizations as effective, because they target the unmet needs of local people and make a positive contribution to the regeneration of deprived areas by addressing gaps in public services, combating socio-economic exclusion and facilitating and local democratic structures based on empowering individuals to make decisions at the local level (Morphet, 2008). They help to build citizenship (participation and membership in the community) by engaging citizens in the development of their communities (Steinberg, 2003).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Career: An occupation, profession or all the roles you undertake throughout your life, including education, training, paid and unpaid work.

Social Enterprise: Social enterprises are defined as enterprises that trade to meet social/environmental goals (Department of Trade and Industry, 2002 AU102: The in-text citation "Department of Trade and Industry, 2002" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).

Career Management: The process that plans and shapes the progression of individuals within an organisation in accordance with the organisational needs and employees’ needs.

Conceptual Framework: An analytical tool used to make conceptual distinctions and organise ideas concepts, assumptions, expectations, beliefs, and theories that supports and informs your research.

Manager: A person responsible for managing, controlling or administering tasks or a certain subset of a company or group of staff.

Career Orientation: The constellation of self-perceived attitudes, talents and values that form the core of a person’s occupational self-concept. It guides and influences the individual’s selection of specific occupations and work settings ( Schein, 1978 , 1990 ).

Third Sector: The third sector includes a very diverse range of organisations comprising non-governmental and non-profit-making organisations or associations, including charities, voluntary and community groups, cooperatives and mutual benefits societies.

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