Investigation of Alternative Fuels as Low Reactivity Fuel in Port-Charged Compression Ignition (PCCI) Engine

Investigation of Alternative Fuels as Low Reactivity Fuel in Port-Charged Compression Ignition (PCCI) Engine

Karthickeyan V. (Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, India), Thiyagarajan S. (SRM Institute of Science and Technology, India) and Ashok B. (Vellore Institute of Technology, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2539-5.ch011
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Abstract

In this chapter, four alternative fuels were obtained from non-edible oils, namely Moringa oleifera seed oil, pumpkin seed oil, waste cooking palm oil, and lemon oil. The existing diesel engine intake manifold was converted into port charged compression ignition engine by adopting necessary supporting components and control mechanics. In this study, two modes of injection were carried out, namely main injection with conventional fuel and pilot injection with the prepared alternative fuel samples. Due to characteristic fuel properties, lemon oil biofuel in pilot fuel injection experienced high thermal efficiency and low fuel consumption. At all loads, lemon oil biofuel in pilot fuel injection exhibited lower emission than other alternative fuel samples. Lemon oil biofuel in pilot fuel injection and conventional fuel in main injection showed superior combustion characteristics. On the whole, this work recommends the application of the alternative fuel admission in pilot injection mode by adopting PCCI technique to achieve improved engine characteristics.
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Highlights

  • Compression ignition engine was converted into port charged compression ignition engine.

  • Moringa oleifera seed oil biodiesel, pumpkin seed oil biodiesel, waste cooking palm oil biodiesel and straight lemon oil were considered as an alternative fuel resource.

  • Intake manifold was equipped with air preheater and PE3 ECU for pilot fuel injection.

  • Straight lemon oil exhibited superior engine characteristics than other fuel samples.

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Introduction

In past few decades, the usage of fossil based resources was increasing drastically due to growing energy requirement. Diesel powered engines were widely used in energy production sectors, transportation, industry, agriculture and the like owing to high brake thermal efficiency and reduced fuel consumption. Conversely, the application of diesel engine causes emission of harmful greenhouse gases which in-turn leads to varying climatic conditions and global warming. About 25% of greenhouse gases were contributed by transportation sectors (Diórdinis et al., 2019). Many countries were imposing stringent emission norms for engine to defend the environment. Thus, environmental pollution and increasing price of resource tends to induce the application of renewable based fuel to satisfy the demand. One such acceptable renewable alternative fuel considered was biodiesel for engine applications. It was important to mention that countries like Europe and Brazil shifted to renewable based fuel usage for energy, transportation and many sectors (Mattson, Burnete, Depcik, Moldovanu, & Burnete, 2019). In 2017, the worldwide production of biodiesel was predicated as 36 billion litre for various applications whereas in 2027, 39 billion was predicted for energy production due to extensive need and increasing environmental concerns (Karthickeyan, 2019c). Many research works were carried out in renewable based alternative fuel for operation in diesel engine application.

Key Terms in this Chapter

MI (D) – PI (W): Main Injection (Diesel) + Pilot Injection (Waste cooking oil biodiesel)

HC: Hydrocarbon emission

MI (D) – PI (M): Main Injection (Diesel) + Pilot Injection ( Moringa oleifera biodiesel)

MI (D) – PI (L): Main Injection (Diesel) + Pilot Injection (Straight lemon oil)

NOx: Oxides of nitrogen emission

RCCI: Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

di: Direct Injection

CI: Compression Ignition

MI (D) – PI (P): Main Injection (Diesel) + Pilot Injection (Pumpkin seed oil biodiesel)

ECU: Electronic Control Unit

MI (D) – PI (D): Main Injection (Diesel) + Pilot Injection (Diesel)

PCCI: Port Charged Compression Ignition

CO: Carbon monoxide emission

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