Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

Ionic Liquid-Mediated Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles

Vivek Srivastava (NIIT University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1241-8.ch017

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors discussed the recent as well as significant development in the synthesis of ionic liquid-mediated nanoparticles (considered a less toxic way to make nanoparticles). Apart from that, they also disused a small background of ionic liquid considering types, properties, and effect of ionic liquid's counterparts on nanoparticles synthesis. There are promising consequences proposing that the ionic liquid route can lead the design and fabrication of nanoparticles through the variety of size, nature, configuration, and functionality. All discussed examples in this chapter clearly depicted that ionic liquids add great value to the area of nanoparticle synthesis.
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Introduction

Ever since the ending of the 1990s, the continuous growth of nanosciences and nanocatalysis has evidently turned up as an interesteing reach area, which interface between homogeneous as well as heterogeneous catalysis (Khan, Saeed, & Khan, 2017; Polshettiwar & Varma, 2010; Renna, Boyle, Gehan, & Venkataraman, 2015). The fundamental target is to develop efficient and prominent catalysts, that consist of either metal nanoparticles (MNPs) or a nanomaterial in the form of support. This type nanocatalysts have the ability to present the compelling advantages of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, mainly superior efficiency, selectivity, durability and simple recovery or recycling. Precise reactivity in nanaocatalytic system is typically anticipated as a result of their nano dimensions configured to afford definite characteristics, which will be never attained with normal, non-nano components (Dhakshinamoorthy, Navalon, Alvaro, & Garcia, 2012; Fan & Gao, 2006).

Nanoparticles (NPs) or nanoscale materials (nanomaterials) are any solid which has size ranges between 1-100 nanometre (10-9 meter) with at least one nanometer dimension. In the nanoscale approach, neither quantum chemistry nor the traditional rules of physics confine. In materials, where, powerful chemical bonding occurs and delocalization of electrons are typically considerable, therefore the intensity of delocalization varies with the dimension of the structure (Astruc, 2008; Bahadory, 2008; Kalidindi & Jagirdar, 2012a; Scholten, Leal, & Dupont, 2012). This result, combined with structural variations, can cause several chemical and even physical characteristics with respect to size. When it comes to additional characteristics, surface reactivity of nanoscale particles is thereby extremely size-dependent. The surface energies and surface morphologies are too size-dependent have importance in nanochemistry, which can leads to improved intrinsic surface reactivity.

Currently, the list of consumer goods in the nano-field is steadily growing, including many complex products including, the nanomaterials, such as sunscreens, toothbrushes, medicines, paints, textiles, plastic wrap, waterless car wash, corrosion resistance, tennis rackets, solar batteries, catalysts, and microelectronic devices (Kalidindi & Jagirdar, 2012b; Roldan Cuenya & Behafarid, 2015; Sheldon, 2012; Zhu & Hosmane, 2015). Engineered nanoparticles are also examined for in situ applications in environmental remediation (Narayan. However, current investigations have shown the obvious toxicity of nanoparticles to living organisms, as well as its potentially negative impact on environmental ecosystems (ecotoxicity); several features of this topic are actively addressed in scientific journals (Singh et al., 2019b; Walters, Pool, & Somerset, 2016). A review of industrial organizations that either production, handle, research, or use nanomaterials has shown that most of the organizations do not have nano-specific health and safety practices at the workplace. Nanotoxicology developed as a new subspecialty of particle toxicology, which discusses the toxicology of nanoparticles that seem to have significant toxicity forms in connection with larger particles. Because of their tiny sizes, nanoparticles can readily pass the biological barriers and penetrate cells inducing many toxic outcomes following in enhanced oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death (Bopp et al., 2019; Lamon, Aschberger, Asturiol, Richarz, & Worth, 2019; Lewis, Bertsch, & McNear, 2019; Singh et al., 2019a; Wigger & Nowack, 2019). Nanoparticles can get into touch with and insert a human body via the skin, eyes, respiratory system, and gastrointestinal (GI) system. Once inside a human organism, nanoparticles can be acknowledged by the innate immunity and be internalized by phagocytic cells, accumulate in the body (if not biodegradable), and may interfere with body regulatory mechanisms, even causing changes in protein structure (Bopp et al., 2019; Lamon et al., 2019; Lewis et al., 2019; Singh et al., 2019a, 2019b; Walters et al., 2016; Wigger & Nowack, 2019). Therefore, concerns are raised because the toxicity and environmental impact of the newly developed nanomaterials are seldom hidden and hard to predict.

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