Islamic Republic of Iran

Islamic Republic of Iran

İbrahim Murat Bozkurt, Muzaffer Koç
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2939-2.ch007
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Iran has been a home for prominent civilizations since early ages thanks to its geographical position, at the intersection point of Europe and Asia. Iran also is a very important market for Turkey. Its population is growing adn several ethnical groups takes place in the country. Its economy is growing despite pressure from international society; these restrictions are lifted in the near future. Relations between Iran and Turkey are important for Middle East politics; Ankara and Tehran's lack of cooperation before the issues in the Middle East led the region to further tribulations, resulted in a decrease in their activities not only in the Middle East but also on a global scale. The relations became closer during AK Party governments in Turkey.
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General Information And History Of Iran

General Information

See Table 1 for general demographics relating to Iran.

Table 1.
General information about Iran
Official NameIslamic Republic of Iran
GovernmentIslamic Republic
Major CitiesTehran (12,7 million), Mashhad (3,9 million), Isfahan (3,2 million) Tabriz (2,1 million), Shiraz (2 million)
Supreme LeaderAyatollah Ali Khamenei
PresidentHassan Rouhani (2013)
Population (Million)79.991 (2016)
Surface Area1.648.195 km
Border Length with Neighboring CountriesTurkmenistan 1205 km, Iraq 1609 km, Afghanistan 945 km, Turkey 511 km, Azerbaijan 759 km, Armenia 48 km, Pakistan 978 km
ReligionIslam %98 (Shia %89, Sunni %9), Zoroaster, Christian, Bahai and others (%2)
Official LanguagePersian
Other LanguagesPersian and dialects (%58), Turkoman and dialects (%26), Kurdish (%9), Luri (%2), Balochi (%1), Turkish (%1), Arabic (%1), Other (%2)
EthnicityPersian (%51), Azerbaijani (%24), Gilaki-Mazandarani (%8), Kurdish(%7), Arab (%3), Lur (%2), Baloch (%2), Turkoman (%2), Other (%1)
Member of International OrganizationsUnited Nations (BM), Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (PUIC, PUOICM), Developing 8 (D-8), Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) (Observer State)
GDP (Billion $)482
GDP per Capita ($)6.350
Unemployment Rate (%)11,67 (IMF 2015)
Inflation Rate (%)18,8
Growth Rate (%)0,50% (2015-IMF)
Petroleum Reserve157,530 billion barrels (OPEC, 2015)
Natural Gas Reserve34,02 trillion cubic meters (OPEC, 2015)
CurrencyIranian Rial (10 Rials = 1 Toman)
SourceDış Ekonomik İlişkiler Kurulu, (2015), 2-3; Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Tahran Büyükelçiliği, (2016); Sargutan, 1219; Bursa Ticaret ve Sanayi Odası, (2016), 6

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