Job Crafting for Tourism Employees: Conceptual Overview, Dimensions, Antecedents, and Consequences

Job Crafting for Tourism Employees: Conceptual Overview, Dimensions, Antecedents, and Consequences

Derya Toksoz (Mersin University, Turkey), Ali Dalgic (Isparta University of Applied Sciences, Turkey) and Kemal Birdir (Mersin University, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1474-0.ch009

Abstract

Job crafting, which expresses that individuals changing their jobs physically, cognitively, and relationally and adapt them to their personal characteristics, leads to individual and organizational positive outcomes. Especially in service enterprises where communication and interaction are prominent attributes, such as in tourism, job crafting plays an important role in customer satisfaction. There are many factors that affect the job crafting of employees. These factors can be categorised under job characteristics, individual differences, motivational characteristics, and social context. Job crafting prevents negative individual attitudes and behaviours and brings many positive outcomes. These outcomes can be categorised under individual attitudes, individual behaviours, individual wellbeing, and other outcomes. In this chapter, the concept of job crafting will be evaluated, and its dimensions will be presented. In addition, the job crafting concepts will be discussed extensively. The results of the job crafting skills of tourism employees and some examples will be given.
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Introduction

Healthy and engaged employees tend to perform better, have higher levels of productivity and are generally happier in their works. An employee who has negative feelings about well-being and low engagement tend to bring down organization culture, productivity and profitability (Tims, Bakker and Derks, 2013: 231). When employees feel that they have no contribution on their role at their company, they have trouble staying engaged and feeling satisfied at work (Cheng and Yi, 2018: 79). The concept of job crafting, which was introduced to the literature in the 2000s, began to be used in the recovery, loyalty and happiness of the employees from their workplaces. The concept aims to help employees to transform their mindset to focus more on the purpose of their roles (Tims, Bakker and Derks, 2014: 490). Employees act as “job crafters” taking initiative to identify where changes or adjustments within their job description are practicable and desirable (Wrzesniewski and Dutton, 2001: 179). It gives them a practical and easy way to find opportunities to feel more engaged fulfilled, effective and well-being at work. Therefore, they want to experience and accomplish new things. Employers can help facilitate this by allowing employees to make some changes in their tasks and interactions with co-workers or customers at work. Job crafting helps employees change their jobs to better suit their talent and skills, thereby increasing their job satisfaction (Tims, Bakker and Derks, 2013: 231).

Psychological empowerment and emotional well-being do not motivate employees enough, but job crafting leads to increased psychological capital, satisfaction, and attachment to the job and enables mobility into new roles thus encouraging overall performance (Chen, Yen and Tsai, 2014: 22). Crafting in a job purpose doesn't involve any actual changes in the content of employees’ work, and while this can add to their enjoyment of work. These behaviors enable the employees to feel that he/she is in control of their job and to establish an effective connection with other employees and also proactively create meaning, interest and satisfaction in their work (Forbes, 2011). In today's world, job requirements and working conditions are constantly changing. One way to ensure employee motivation is to improve working conditions and redesign employees' work. Recently, firms have begun to adopt redesign approaches for job roles at all levels in the workplace (Le Blanc, Demerouti and Bakker, 2017: 48-49). Job crafting is relatively a new concept in the literature, but it reinforces the sense of meaning of employees’ work and expresses a proactive behavior. With this behavior, the employees shape their jobs according to themselves, make their work more meaningful, take care of their business, adapt their tasks with their own talent and interests and make changes such as arranging their relations with other employees. In this chapter, the subject of job crafting will be discussed in the context of tourism employees. The tourism industry has many sub-sectors within itself, and various professional and business requirements can be mentioned. It is also safe to state that there are relatively few works in the context of job crafting literature in the tourism industry. Therefore, we believe, this chapter will be an important contribution to understand the concept in the tourism industry.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Self-Image: A concept used for people who are confident and have high self-awareness.

Organizational Commitment: The concept of employees believing in the aims and values of the organization, working hard to achieve the objectives of the enterprise, expressing their willingness to maintain membership of the organization.

Job Crafting: Changing work processes from a physical, cognitive and relational perspective in line with the personal characteristics and skills of employees.

Job Autonomy: A concept related to the degree of freedom of employees in their jobs (planning, decision making, etc.).

Psychological Distress: An emotional state in which the need to cope with disturbing, harmful, or annoying situations.

Counterproductive Work Behavior: The behavior when employees consciously reduce their job performance and reduce their overall productivity by not following the rules of the workplace.

Turnover Intention: A concept that states the employee’s intention to leave the organization. Employees in this process seek out job alternatives and review their existing firm.

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