Kenya Success Story in Water Resources Management: Participatory Capacity Building in Integrated Watershed Management

Kenya Success Story in Water Resources Management: Participatory Capacity Building in Integrated Watershed Management

Joy Apiyo Obando (Kenyatta University, Kenya), Cush Ngonzo Luwesi (University of Kwango, DRC), Nele Förch (Water Sector Reform Program, Kenya), Anthony Ogutu Opiyo (South Eastern Kenya University, Kenya), Chris Shisanya (Kenyatta University, Kenya) and Gerd Förch (Independent Researcher, Kenya)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0163-4.ch012
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Management of water resources is at the heart of political discourse to raise awareness among local stakeholders for support in policy formulation and implementation of water sector development plans. The concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM) has been largely disseminated by the Global Water Partnership. Though theoretically appealing and sound, the process of implementation of participatory water resources management still has potential to yield results at local level. One reason is that the top-down approach used is too broad to be implemented and neither does it facilitate better understanding of the needs of each sector involved in the inter-sectoral collaboration to foster planning and benefit sharing of water resources. It is in favor of such practical action for water sector planning and development at small-scale catchment level that the concept of “light” IWRM or integrated watershed management (IWM) was developed to reduce various threats and severe water constraints affecting local stakeholders.
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Iwrm And Iwm Concepts

The development of the concept of IWRM is generally explained by an increasing recognition of the linkages between natural water systems and human development in order to strike a balance between fulfilling human needs and sustaining ecosystems rather than merely exploiting water to the full to maximize production (Rockström et al. 2009). In fact, prior to the 1950s food crises, water research was solely the field of hydrologists and engineers. The projected 1970s multifaceted economic crises brought about “water resources development” concept, then “water resources management” (WRM) in the 1980s and more popularly “integrated water resources management” (IWRM) in the 1990s with a handful of newly related paradigms such as “integrated watershed management (IWM)”, “food-energy-water nexus (FEWN)”, “water smart production (WSP)”, “green water saving and management (GWSM)”, “global water accounting (GWA)”, “virtual water trade (VWT)”, etc. (Savenije et al. 2014).

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