Key Ingredients for Fostering Emotional Intelligence in Children

Key Ingredients for Fostering Emotional Intelligence in Children

Nava R. Silton (Marymount Manhattan College, USA) and Amanda Anzovino (Marymount Manhattan College, USA)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2940-9.ch005

Abstract

This chapter delves into the history of emotional intelligence, from early allusions in the 1920s to contemporary times. It describes the various facets and components of emotional intelligence, discusses how it can be measured, and will discriminate between the emotional quotient (EQ) and the intelligence quotient (IQ) in terms of predicting future life success. The chapter then delineates key ingredients for becoming an emotionally intelligent parent and for promoting emotionally intelligent strategies in the home. Finally, the chapter concludes with comprehensive sections of how to foster emotional intelligence in the workplace and in the school system. The benefits of infusing emotional intelligence in the home, the school, and the workplace are emphasized and discussed.
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Introduction, Background And History

History

While the publication of Daniel Goleman’s best-selling book, Emotional Intelligence in 1995 strongly popularized the construct of emotional intelligence, intelligence has been an evolving concept with multiple definitions and different subtypes. Thorndike (1920) identified three categorizations of intelligence: abstract, mechanical, and social. Abstract intelligence is related to one’s verbal abilities, mechanical intelligence is related to one’s visual and spatial abilities, and social intelligence is related to one’s ability to interact with others. Thorndike (1937) continued to build on the concept of social intelligence and further defined it as the ability to understand your own mental state, motives, and behaviors and the ability to use that understanding as a basis for decision-making. Additionally, social intelligence also includes the ability to understand and manage relationships with other individuals. In the 1940s, David Wechsler, of the renowned Wechsler Intelligence Tests, suggested that affective or emotional components of intelligence may be critical to success in life. In the 1950s, Humanistic Psychologists, like Abraham Maslow, who proposed the famous Hierarchy of Needs, discussed how individuals can build their own emotional strength. In 1975, Howard Gardner introduced the concept of Multiple Intelligence Theory in his text, The Shattered Mind, which introduced Intrapersonal (self-awareness) and Interpersonal (social relationship) skills.” In 1981, Sternberg, Conway, Ketron, and Bernstein conducted a study wherein participants were asked to describe an intelligent person. Many of the responses included characteristics related to social abilities such as being able to admit to mistakes, to accept others, and to display interest in the world. Research continued on the topic of social intelligence and the theory continued to develop into what we refer to today as emotional intelligence. In 1985, Wayne Payne introduced the term “emotional intelligence” in his doctoral dissertation entitled, “A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence; Self-integration; Relating to Fear, Pain, and Desire.” In 1987, Keith Beasley & Reuven Bar-On utilized the term “emotional quotient (EQ).” Beasley discussed the term in an issue of Mensa Magazine while Bar-On mentioned the term in the unpublished version of his graduate thesis. In 1990, Yale researchers, Peter Salovey and John Mayer published their landmark article, “Emotional Intelligence” in the Journal, Imagination, Cognition, and Personality. As aforementioned, in 1995 Daniel Goleman wrote his best-selling Emotional Intelligence text and described why Emotional Intelligence (EI) can matter more than one’s Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in predicting future life success. Finally, in 1996, The Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations conducted research to identify emotional and social factors that are integral to later job success (Cory, 2019).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Emotional Intelligence: The ability to be cognizant of, control, and express one's emotions, and to manage interpersonal relationships judiciously and empathically.

Empathy: Stepping into the shoes of another person and perceiving and understanding the emotions that other individuals are experiencing.

Parental Positive Demandingness: Monitoring and supervision, control, independence granting, setting age appropriate demands and expectations, and applying inductive discipline.

Mood: A temporary state of mind or feeling.

Ability Emotional Intelligence (Ability EI): Perceives emotional intelligence as a skill that can be developed, can be measured through ability tests and is connected to information processes within the brain.

Emotions: Natural instinctive states of mind which derive from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others.

Parental Emotion-Related Coaching: Involves recognizing your children’s feelings and helping your children learn how emotions work and how to react to feelings in healthy ways.

Parental Negative Demandingness: Children of uninvolved parents tend to experience impairments in attachment, cognition, and social-emotional skills. They also often show poor self-control and low self-esteem

Trait Emotional Intelligence (Trait EI): A constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality hierarchies that integrates the affective or emotional aspects of personality.

Parental Responsiveness: The degree to which parents are accepting and sensitive to their children's emotional and developmental needs.

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