Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management

Arshad Siddiqi (Institute of Business Administration, Pakistan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-3679-8.ch018
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Knowledge is the essence of life, and Knowledge Management (KM) is the methodological formulation of strategies and practices deployed by the businesses and organization identify, define, develop, and utilize the tacit and explicit information within the organization for better use of developing and marketing new products and ideas. Knowledge is a knowing and understanding of facts, figures in form, or data or information about something or some entity. Knowledge can be acquired by various sources which could include facts and figures from books, news media, discussions, or books. It is a familiarity with what is happening around one and how does it affect. It can be acquired from any media; books, magazines, television, radio, or Internet. It can be in the form of raw data, or structured information, facts and figures, or description, depiction, or sketched.
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Definition Of Knowledge

The following quote from Bertrand Russell's “Theory of Knowledge” illustrates the difficulty in defining knowledge:

The question how knowledge should be defined is perhaps the most important and difficult of the three with which we shall deal. This may seem surprising: at first sight it might be thought that knowledge might be defined as belief which is in agreement with the facts. The trouble is that no one knows what a belief is, no one knows what a fact is, and no one knows what sort of agreement between them would make a belief true. Let us begin with belief.

Philosophically the study of knowledge is called “epistemology,” which was defined by the philosopher Plato as “justified true belief.” Plato 424-348 BC was a mathematician and a philosopher. He was the student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the foundations of Western philosophy and science.

Epistemology meaning “knowledge, science” It addresses the questions:

  • What is knowledge?

  • How is knowledge acquired?

  • To what extent is it possible for a given subject or entity to be known?

  • How do we know what we know?

Knowledge acquisition is not simple and straight forward; it involves complex cognitive processes involving:

  • Perception: How well one perceives a situation.

  • Communication: How accurately does one communicate it others.

  • Association: How is the situation associated with concerned entities.

  • Reasoning: What are reasoning of the occurrence of the situation?

Scientifically, cognition refers to mental processes including understanding, remembering, producing and giving attention to problem solving and decision making decisions.

Cognition is such a concept that it is part of the various studied with different names like:

  • Information Technology: Information processing.

  • Psychology and Cognitive Science: Individual's psychological functions.

  • Social Psychology called Social Cognition: Attitudes, attribution and group’s dynamics.


Tacit And Explicit Knowledge

While knowledge is said to be related to the capacity of understanding in human beings, basically the two types of knowledge Tacit and Explicit make up the knowledge (See Figure 1).

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