Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan

Mehmet Yüce (Uludağ University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2939-2.ch020
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Abstract

Kyrgyzstan is very rich and striking with its ethnic composition. After the collapse of USSR, the changes in social infrastructure and the differentiation in the ideological premises of the state have led to a dramatic change in the population dynamics of the country. Now, the Kyrgyzstan Republic is a democratic and secular state. Ethnic structure, border security, long border with China are important issues of Kyrgyzstan, which, in its foreign policy, has drawn a profile that is open to the west, avoids conflicts with its neighbors, pursues a balanced policy in its relations with the US, Russia and China. Turkey is also an important partner of Kyrgyzstan; between Turkey and the Kyrgyz Republic, over 100 agreements and cooperation documents were signed in the fields of education, culture, trade and economic cooperation, transport, communication, military and other areas.
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Demographic Structure Of Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan is very rich and striking with its ethnic composition. The country has gained quite a multinational structure as a result of migration and population movements during the former Soviet period. On the other hand, the geographical structure of the county has also been effective on the demographic structure. In order to grasp a better understanding of Kyrgyzstan, its regions should be also examined. It is difficult to communicate in the regions of the country due to its geographic structure and the Tian Shan Mountains splitting the country down the middle. Therefore, the structure of its population has been formed according to the regional structure. If we look briefly at the regional characteristic, it is possible to examine the provinces of Chuy, Issyk-Kul, Naryn, Talas, Jalal-Abad, Batken and Osh.

Kyrgyzstan’s ethnic composition is quite diverse. 70.9% of the population consist of Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 7.7% Russians, 1.1% Dungans and 5.9% other nations (including Uygur, Tajik, Turkish, Kazakh, Tatar, Ukrainian, Korean, German). The national and official language is Kyrgyz language. Its religious structure consists of 75% Muslims, 20% Russian Orthodox and 5% other religions.

Kyrgyzstan is divided into 7 administrative regions. These regions are Chuy, Issyk-Kul, Naryn, Talas, Jalal-Abad, Osh and Batken. Batken, which is located in the southwest of Kyrgyzstan and was in the Osh region earlier, was given the status of a region by the decision taken on 12 October 1999. The capital Bishkek is not included in the above 7 regions as it has a special status.

The demography and migration trends that occurred during the process after the Soviet era are closely related with the social and economic changes experienced in Kyrgyzstan in this process. The painful transformation engendered by turning towards market economy, the changes in social infrastructure and the differentiation in the ideological premises of the state have led to a dramatic change in the population dynamics of the country. The interregional geographical differences in the country have led to results that are required to be taken into consideration in terms of the social consequences they produced in the demographic structure.

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