Leading Pedagogical Change with Innovative Web Tools and Social Media

Leading Pedagogical Change with Innovative Web Tools and Social Media

Catherine McLoughlin (Australian Catholic University, Canberra, Australia)
Copyright: © 2012 |Pages: 11
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61350-068-2.ch001
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Abstract

Today, in a globalised, digital world, leadership challenges in the adoption and integration of emerging social software tools to supports for learning abound. Today’s students who have grown up in technology saturated environments have never known a world without the Internet, mobile phones, video on demand, and personal computers. Leaders and educators must therefore know their students, and cater for their diverse needs. Educational institutions in the 21st century must learn how to adopt social software tools and apply sound pedagogical strategies in order to add value to existing practices and to enhance the learning process. ICT supplements and enhances learning and student engagement through access to global learning communities and rich resources, and this requires educators to be conversant with the technology, able to lead by example and capable of creating authentic contexts and environments for learning. Educators in today’s media rich society must be ready to grapple with the significant pedagogic, cultural, and social changes associated with technological innovation.
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Introduction

The development and uptake of digital tools and social software is bringing about massive societal and economic change. Yet, technology’s impact on education, teaching, and learning has been rather limited. While expectations have run high about web-based instruction, personal computers, computer-based instruction, social media and the raft of “Web 2.0” tools, the impact on teaching and learning is not well documented. While there are cases of innovation and transformation of pedagogies, there remain many exemplars of outmoded, traditional curricula and didactic instruction that merely replicate face-to-face teaching rather than innovations that make best use of interactive tools and technologies (Schrum & Leven, 2009).

The chapter will focus on leadership challenges that educators need to be fully aware of in the adoption of emerging social software tools, and the need for educators to embrace innovative pedagogies in order to capitalise on Web 2.0 applications to support teaching and assessment in meaningful and authentic ways. The adoption of social software tools need to be integrated into sound pedagogical strategies in order to add value to existing practices and to enhance the learning process. The chapter supports the notion that ICT supplements and enhances learning and student engagement through access to global learning communities and rich resources, thereby creating opportunities for dialogue with others, for broadening understanding and participation leading to improved social and learning outcomes. The realization of these benefits can only come through institutional leadership that is focused on adoption of appropriate pedagogies, learner centred curricula and the design of effective learning environments and learning activities.

Challenges in the Digital Age: Students and Learning Environments in Transition

Worldwide, higher education institutions today are confronted by considerable change driven by a myriad of external factors. The current learning landscape is characterized by constant connectivity, networked spaces, web-based tools and virtual learning environments. Mobile devices and social media abound, and the dramatic shift in learner characteristics and demands is evidenced by the emergence of “millennial students” who are digitally literate, always on, communicative, and experimental and community oriented (Oblinger & Oblinger, 2005). The terms “learner voice” and “learner experience” are central to today’s technology supported learning environments, and a number of studies have emphasized how ICT tools can facilitate learner engagement and participation (Conole, 2008). Today’s students demand interactivity and thus there is a pressing need to meet t their needs and to rethink approaches to teaching and learning in order to replace outmoded didactic pedagogies, which place emphasis on the delivery of content from a textbook or website rather than being learner-centric and to allowing for self-paced flexible learning. Clearly, many popular learning management systems (LMS’s) and virtual learning environments (VLE’s) used by educational institutions to support e-learning perceive the student as “information consumer” thereby reinforcing instructor and content-centered approaches to teaching, learning, and cognition. Many commonly used learning management systems simply feed information or content to students and do not include social engagement, peer learning or creative inquiry by students. In the Web 2.0 era, such approaches no longer meet student needs. Tim Berners-Lee (2000, p. 216), the inventor of the World Wide Web, foreshadowed a more open, social raft of tools that are not simply about learners downloading and consuming information when he stated, “I have always imagined the information space as something to which everyone has immediate and intuitive access, and not just to browse, but to create” (p. 169). These words foreshadowed the Web 2.0 era, with its raft of social tools (Flickr, Facebook, Twitter, and MySpace) which allow users expanded capacities for creative, collaborative and communicative responses, often leading to idea generation and knowledge creation. The rise of learner generated content is captured by Wheeler, Yeoman and Wheeler (2008) who state “The social network provides opportunities for the individual learner to create sound and viable knowledge syntheses from fractured and inchoate information’ (p. 989). For digital age learners, Web 2.0 tools are part of the learning landscape, and are therefore worthy of consideration by educators and instructional designers.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Pedagogy 2.0: Digital tools and social media call for a new conceptualization of teaching that is focused on participation in communities and networks for learning, personalization of learning tasks, and production of ideas and knowledge. Pedagogy 2.0 is a response to this call. It represents a set of approaches and strategies that differs from teaching as a didactic practice of passing on information; instead, it advocates a model of learning in which students are empowered to participate, communicate, and create knowledge, exercising a high level of agency and control over the learning process.

Learning Technology: Learning technology (also called educational technology) is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using and managing appropriate technological processes and resources.

Web 2.0: This is a term coined in 2005 by O’Rielly. It refers to the recent wave of technologies and tools associated with the web, which emphasis the user-focused, collaborative aspects of these technologies. It contrast with the first phase of web technologies which were essentially information focused. Social networking is a term also used to describe many of these technologies.

Learner Voice/Learner Experience: This is a term that had come into use in recently years to describe research which is exploring the ‘learner voice’ or student experience. In particular it has been appropriated to refer to students’ use of and experience of technologies.

VLE/LMS: Virtual Learning Environments/Learner Management Systems are overarching learning and teaching systems that have become increasingly important in educational institutions in the last decade. The systems include a set of tools to support the delivery of online education. Tools include facilities for communication –such as chat, forums, etc., reflection and collaboration tools such as blogs and wikis, tools for assessment – such as drop boxes for assignments and e-portfolios for aggregating learning evidence. They include commercial products such as Blackboard and open source systems such as Model.

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