LFSR-Keyed MUX for Random Number Generation in Nano Communication Using QCA

LFSR-Keyed MUX for Random Number Generation in Nano Communication Using QCA

Padmapriya Praveenkumar (SASTRA University (Deemed), India), Santhiya Devi R. (SASTRA University (Deemed), India), Amirtharajan Rengarajan (SASTRA University (Deemed), India) and John Bosco Balaguru Rayappan (SASTRA University (Deemed), India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 14
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2253-0.ch004

Abstract

Nano industries have been successful trendsetters for the past 30 years, in escalating the speed and dropping the power necessities of nanoelectronic devices. According to Moore's law and the assessment created by the international technology roadmap for semiconductors, beyond 2020, there will be considerable restrictions in manufacturing IC's based on CMOS technologies. As a result, the next prototype to get over these effects is quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA). In this chapter, an efficient quantum cellular automata (QCA) based random number generator (RNG) is proposed. QCA is an innovative technology in the nano regime which guarantees large device density, less power dissipation, and minimal size as compared to the various CMOS technologies. With the aim to maximise the randomness in the proposed nano communication, a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) keyed multiplexer with ring oscillators is developed. The developed RNG is simulated using a quantum cellular automata (QCA) simulator tool.
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Background

In the past, a significant hazard to the CMOS based cryptographic circuits is the side channel attack (Kelsey, Schneier, Wagner, & Hall, n.d.; Kocher, 1996; Liu, Srivastava, Lu, O’Neill, & Swartzlander, 2012) that is based on power analysis. There is a possibility that with the power analysis, the secret key can be exposed just by measuring the encryption and decryption power consumption. As there is no current flow in QCA, this can be avoided (Kianpour & Sabbaghi-Nadooshan, 2014; Liu et al., 2012). In this aspect, many researchers have developed new cryptographic algorithms. Pain et al. (Pain, Das, Sadhu, Kanjilal, & De, 2019) have developed a True Random Number Generator (TRNG) intending for secure communication by encompassing a smaller amount of QCA cells. An architecture that is based on QCA for hiding the information in images has been proposed by Debnath et al. (Debnath, Das, & De, 2017). Amiri et al. (Amiri, Mahdavi, & Mirzakuchaki, 2009) incorporated QCA technology for implementing 4×4 S-Box that can be used for confusing the information in a cryptosystem.

Jadav et al. (Das et al., 2019) designed a QCA based even parity generator and checker circuits for utilizing in Nano communication networks using XOR gates. The proposed QCA nano architecture is exceptional in high device density and faster speed as compared to the existing ones. The general characteristics of QCA are enumerated by Criag et al. (Lent et al., 1993) in his invited paper, where the switching sequences of the QCA device for various clocking is elaborated. Also, the various pipelining stages like switch, hold, release and relax phases of the QCA cell is depicted with respect to time. Bikash et al. (Debnath et al., 2017) establishes a secure communication by using reversible image steganography using quantum dots. QCA parameters like latency, area, cell count for the secured QCA circuit was analyzed (Sabbaghi-Nadooshan & Kianpour, 2014). Moreover, LSB based embedding was carried using QCA array and the metrics like PSNR, SNR and MSE were estimated as like normal secure communication. Later, Himanshu et al. (Thapliyal, Ranganathan, & Kotiyal, 2013) realizes two test vector based completely reversible sequential circuits using quantum dots. Fredkin and Mux (Ahmad et al., 2016; Angizi, Alkaldy, Bagherzadeh, & Navi, 2014) based QCA layouts were constructed and tested for completely stuck at fault conditions. From the analysis, MUX based gates outshine than Fredkin in terms of majority gates, speed and device density.

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