Lifelong Learning Phenomenon in Migration

Lifelong Learning Phenomenon in Migration

Emel Terzioğlu Barış (Karabük University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3325-2.ch010
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Abstract

Education helps migrants to learn local language of the host country and builds cultural and social bridges with indigenous social groups, as well as providing some of the skills and competencies they will need throughout their lifetime. So, expanding access to lifelong learning can open up new possibilities for active inclusion and enhanced social participation, especially for the low skilled, the unemployed, people with special needs, the elderly and migrants. We know that lifelong learning cannot solve all problems in societies, but sure that can help to make life more positive for all of us. In this chapter, we want to open to discussion the importance of lifelong learning phenomenon in migration.
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Introduction

Migration has various dimensions which takes place internationally or local level (Lettmayr and Riihimäki, 2011) and has both poverty and richness strand: poverty is portrayed by the waves of illegal immigrants, victims of human trafficking, desperate and ready to risk everything in search of a better life (Frattini, 2007). We know that migration is difficult process to cope with for both poverty and richness strand; for children, for adults, for migrants, for citizens and governors of host country. These pushing and pulling factors of migration can be grouped under four headings as political, demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors, these are (Schloenhardt, 2003):

  • Political Factors: In general, there can be different political factors specific to each country that can lead people to migrate.

  • Demographic Factors: Especially in developing countries the rapid population growth articulated with the decreasing national economy (especially high level of unemployment), political factors or environmental degradation lead people to migrate using illegal ways.

  • Socioeconomic Factors: Socioeconomic factors can both act as pushing and pulling factors depending on the system’s offers to citizens in terms of wage, employment, welfare and living standards.

  • Environmental Factors: In many countries with the increase in industrialization and population, disasters and natural fluctuations environmental issues have emerged.

Regardless of the pushing and pulling factors that cause migration, this is the fact that the reality of education for people of all ages emerges after migration. Education plays a fundamental role in helping migrants to maintain their lives in the best possible situation in their new places (Keeley, 2009). Education helps them learn local language and builds cultural and social bridges with indigenous social groups, as well as providing some of the skills and competencies they will need throughout their lifetime. In this chapter, we want to open to discussion the importance of lifelong learning phenomenon in migration.

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Lifelong Learning Phenomenon In Migration

International migration provides the opportunity to learn and apply these lifelong skills (Hagan et al., 2014). We can specify reflections of migration as follows (Jin-Hee, 2010):

  • 1.

    First, international migration produces a social alteration and a new relation to an individual's life; it facilitates people to deal with different learning environments beyond a nation-state's boundary.

  • 2.

    Second, migration is likely to generate matters of disjuncture and social connection/disconnection in the host society as well as the migrant workers' lives. While some migrants may assimilate integrating their entity in social connections during this process, others may remain within the realm of social disconnection or resist.

  • 3.

    Last, throughout migration, the multiple issues of culture, diversity and marginalization show that people face a set of cultural, social and political alterations.

If we have mentioned the importance of the lifelong learning activities in migration, lifelong learning in all perspectives comes into mind. So, lifelong learning is seen as being instrumental to fight poverty and one of the means to promote social inclusion (EUCIS-LLL, 2011) in migration and in society for all. The principles which underpin lifelong learning and guide its effective implementation emphasize the centrality of the learner, the importance of equal opportunities and the quality and relevance of learning opportunities (Learning Community, 2012). On the other hand, of course, lifelong learning has an important role to play in helping migrants with their adaptation and transition to a new society and it is also primarily concerned with the well-being and equality of society (Guo, 2010).

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