Liquid Products Characterization from Pyrolysis and Gasification: How Can It Be Classified?

Liquid Products Characterization from Pyrolysis and Gasification: How Can It Be Classified?

Caio G. Sánchez (University of Campinas, Brazil), Renata Andrade Figueiredo (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil), Flávio Augusto Bueno Figueiredo (Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil), Elisabete Maria Saraiva Sánchez (University of Campinas, Brazil), Jesús Arauzo (University of Zaragoza, Spain), Alberto Gonzalo Callejo (University of Zaragoza, Spain) and Rolando Zanzi Vigouroux (Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8711-0.ch006


In this chapter there is described a tentative of obtain and characterize pyrolysis liquids from cashew nut shell, using a suggested classification of tars. The large amount of tar definitions and measurement methods, as well as the wide spectrum of organic compounds, makes it almost impossible to capture “tars” with a clear definition. And so, in order to facilitate the study of the evolution of liquid fraction composition, the compounds have been grouped according to their chemical nature, but differently from other works, it was extended the range of compounds in order to evaluate the influence of the reactor parameters in liquid fraction compositions. It is described, as well, the pyrolysis and gasification of cashew nut shell, that has been studied in a laboratory scale reactor. It was quantified and classified the production of liquids (tar) and evaluated the final temperature influence (800, 900 and 1000 °C) and the use of N2 in pyrolysis case, and a mixture of N2 and steam or air in the gasification case. Finally, it is described the identification and quantification of tar compositions, by CG-MS and CG-FID analyzes. Around 50 different compounds have been detected in the liquid fraction obtained, most of them being present at very low concentrations and it is observed that in the pyrolysis and gasification processes, phenol and benzene were the major chemical groups, and this fact agree with others works, presented here in a bibliographic revision.
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Knowledge of various properties of biomass pyrolysis products is relevant for energy conversion, essential to identifying the utilization of each product. The experimental heating value of the pyrolysis products was determined by Raveendran and Ganesh (1996), and compared each other based on the elemental composition of its. The main conclusions include that heating values of biomass pyrolysis products are functions of the initial composition of the biomass feed, this has been explained through the correlations developed by then, and heating values of biomass pyrolysis liquid are comparable with those of ethanol.

In the study reported by Alén, Kuoppala and Oesh (1996), softwood and its main structural components (cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin) were treated separately under the same conditions. In each case, volatile GC-amenable thermal degradation products were identified by mass-selective detection (MSD) and were divided into several characteristic compound groups in weight %, i.e., w/w %, like could be seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Relative composition of the main pyrolysis oils products from pine wood sawdust. Results from Alén et al. (1996)

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