Location Acquisition and Applications in Mobile and Ad-Hoc Environments

Location Acquisition and Applications in Mobile and Ad-Hoc Environments

David Muñoz Rodriguez (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico), José Ramón Rodríguez Cruz (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico), Cesar Vargas Rosales (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico) and Daniel Elias Muñoz Jimenez (Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-027-3.ch012
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Abstract

This chapter addresses the relevance of location information as an important resource that supports other applications. This information is important for better network planning, development of new location-based services, fast deployment of assistance services, and support of surveillance and safety regulations, among others. Accuracy of location acquisition processes is an important factor because the potential for multiple new location-based services depends on it. However, noise is always present at least in two forms. Measurements taken with electronic instruments are inherently noisy and estimation algorithms introduce noise of their own in the assumption process. For this reason, this chapter explores several methods and techniques. A well- balanced solution should take into account the compromise between accuracy and delay and/or complexity. Many solutions have been proposed for new needs and new applications which demand more timely and accurate position locations of users or objects.
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Location Information

Location information can be referred to as the knowledge of the place where a person or device is. This information is crucial for any service or application that provides site-dependent solutions. There will always be location uncertainties due to impairments caused by the environment or any other interfering element. However, the need to more for more accurately estimate position has motivated the invention of more accurate PL methods, because the applications depend on the accuracy of the location process.

Measurements and estimations for certain kinds of services demand accuracy (i.e. emergency services). PL methods can be used to provide navigation and geographical information, emergency location, movement tracing and tracking, selection of geographical coverage of communication areas and sensor measurements based on position and location patterns and the improvement of network system operations, among others. Location information data can include spatial distribution of users and assets, finding people or places of interest and certain other information, depending on the application requirements.

Location information can be obtained by using different methods that are classified into three basic groups: network-based, mobile-based and mobile-assisted methods. All three groups can be used in many different ways, and their utilization varies according to the available technology and the application scenario.

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