Macronutrients Having Pro-/Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Macronutrients Having Pro-/Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Uğur Günşen (Bandırma Onyedi Eylül University, Turkey) and Ramazan Mert Atan (University Bandırma Onyedi Eylül, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3594-3.ch003

Abstract

Inflammation is a physiological response to infectious agents and tissue damage. When the inflammatory process does not proceed appropriately, a low-grade chronic inflammatory response develops. Low-grade chronic inflammation is defined as a metabolic process characterized by the increase of the acute phase proteins such as CRP and the pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma and by infiltration of macrophage and T cell and of chemotactic pro-inflammatory chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in insulin-dependent tissues cells. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, which are among the most important macro nutrients are important for the individual's inflammatory response according to their daily intake levels, sources and types. Although their diet is rich in complex carbohydrates, pulp, MUFA, PUFA, the reduction of SFA, TFA, simple sugars, and processed carbohydrates can lead to positive effects on inflammatory pathways and prevent chronic diseases in the long term.
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Nutrition And Inflammation

According to many national and international health guidelines, a healthy and balanced diet pattern is one of the leading modifiable risk factors for the protection of individuals from chronic diseases. Adequate and balanced diet in terms of macro and micronutrients, has positive effects on prevention, onset and prognosis of chronic diseases in the short and long term (WHO, 2019a; WHO, 2019b).

In recent years, changing living conditions have changed the eating habits of individuals and therefore their diet patterns. As a result of the developed food processing techniques and nutritional habits, macro and micronutrients of the diet, fatty acid compositions and pulp content have changed significantly (Cordain et al., 2005; Carrera-Bastos, Fontes, & Lindeberg, 2011). Today, this diet pattern, which changes with the consumption of packaged and processed carbohydrates and fast food consumption and with the excessive consumption of sugary and carbonated beverages, is called “western type diet”. Compared to other nutritional approaches, the Western-type diet, has a high content of energy, SFA, TFA, sugar and pre-packaged products with added sugar, pulp, MUFA, PUFA, vitamins and minerals are characterized by insufficient nutritional patterns (Odermatt, 2011).

As a result of close to 6500 cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies conducted on humans, it was found that there was a relationship between the content of the diet and the inflammatory markers found in the blood. The effects of some nutrients in the nutritional pattern of the individual on the inflammatory markers such as Interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), Tumor Necrous Factor-α (TNF-α) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) were investigated and “Dietary Inflammation Index (DII)” was developed. While total fat, SFA and simple sugar content found in an individual's nutrition pattern had pro-inflammatory effects; anti-inflammatory properties of MUFA, PUFA and pulp intake have been reported (Shivappa, Steck, Hurley, Hussey, & Hebert, 2014). In addition, high energy density of the diet and the energy received from the need to trigger more inflammatory processes are reported (Bawaked et al., 2017).

Inflammation is a physiological response to infectious agents and tissue damage. Inflammation is not a disease, but a system that must be in balance for a healthy life, and is the response of the immune system to attacks from outside or inside the body (Libby, 2007). Adipose tissue has an important role in inflammation. Adipose tissue is not only an energy storage organ but also an important endocrine organ and secretes the inflammatory markers such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, CRP, and adipokines such as adiponectin, leptin and resistin (Shivappa, 2014).

Inflammation is divided into acute and chronic inflammation. Acute inflammatory response represents the process of wound healing and tissue regeneration, which will normally improve within a few days. When the inflammatory process does not proceed appropriately, a low-grade chronic inflammatory response develops. Low-grade chronic inflammation are defined as a metabolic process characterized by increase of the acute phase proteins such as CRP and the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1 β and IL-6, e-selectin, TGF-β, TLR-4 in plasma and by infiltration of macrophage and T cell and of chemotactic pro-inflammatory chemokines such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in insulin-dependent tissues cells. In this process, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma and tissues can begin to cause metabolic damage and lead to the formation of chronic diseases (Elenkov & Chrousos, 2012; Calder et. al., 2013; Huang, Zourdos, Jo, & Ormsbee, 2013; Heber & Henning, 2014; Leon-Pedroza et al., 2015).

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