Magnetic Sensors for Space Applications: Development and Magnetic Cleanliness Considerations

Magnetic Sensors for Space Applications: Development and Magnetic Cleanliness Considerations

Neoclis Hadjigergiou (National Technical University of Athens, Greece), Marios Sophocleous (University of Cyprus, Cyprus), Evangelos Hristoforou (National Technical University of Athens, Greece) and Paul Peter Sotiriadis (National Technical University of Athens, Greece)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 36
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5415-8.ch007
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This chapter is composed of three parts. The first is an introductory part, providing general information about magnetism and related phenomena. Magnetic materials are also discussed and presented. Afterwards, the magnetic field and various measurement techniques are discussed. In the second part, different magnetic sensors used in a laboratory or space are presented. Magnetic sensors that are discussed include anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR), giant magneto-resistance (GMR), giant magneto-impedance (GMI), flux-gate and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Although some of them may be outdated and well known, they are widespread and they still pose an excellent choice for certain applications. Magnetic cleanliness is an important factor both in calibration and in normal operation of a system; in the third part, current techniques to isolate a system from the external magnetic field providing cleanliness are discussed.
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Discovery of Magnetism

Nowadays, magnetism has become a well-known principle. However, it is not really known who discovered the phenomenon of magnetism. The first scripts and references that are available today, suggest that magnetism was discovered in Greece prior to 600 BC. Diogenes Laërtius, Hieronymus of Rhodes, made a reference about the use of magnetic stones by Thales of Miletus. Aristotle, also talked about the use of lodestones (Fe3O4 – Fe2O3) by Thales of Miletus (Lucretius, 2015). The mineral lodestone, was in abundance in Magnesia of Greece. According to the previous historians, magnetism received its name from Magnesia of Greece (Daniel, 1988). Nevertheless, there is another reference about the origin of magnetic stones (lodestone) by Pliny. Pliny assumed that magnetism was named after the shepherd Magnes, “the nails of whose shoes and the tip of whose staff stuck fast in a magnetic field while he pastured his flocks.” (William, 1991). However, this reference came much later and is relatively controversial. Another important milestone in the area of magnetism is the invention of the compass, which is dated between 300 and 200 BC during the Han dynasty in China. Later on, the Song Dynasty used the compass for navigation purposes (Lowrie, (2007); Merrill et al., (1983)). Nowadays, more complex and more precise systems are available for navigation and magnetic field sensing.

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