MANET: Enhanced Lightweight Sybil Attack Detection Technique

MANET: Enhanced Lightweight Sybil Attack Detection Technique

Roopali Garg (UIET, Panjab University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0773-4.ch014
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MANETs (Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks) are an infrastructure-less network where attackers can easily attack on the network from any side. Amongst innumerable attacks is ‘Sybil attack' that causes severe hazard to the network. It is an attack which uses one/many identities at a time. The identities used by Sybil attackers are either created by it or uses someone else's identity. This attack can decrease the trust of any legitimate node by using identity of that node and accumulate the secret or important data. Sybil attackers distribute secret data in other networks and it reduces the secrecy of network. This research work implements Enhanced lightweight Sybil attack detection technique that is used to detect Sybil attack in MATLAB. The concern is to improve the security of the network by removing the Sybil nodes from the network. The work has been carried out using four parameters namely - Speed, Energy, frequency and latency. During the research work, experiments were carried out to observe the trend of SNR with BER; Throughput with SNR and Throughput with BER.
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The exponential growth in the use of mobile devices like laptops, smartphones, tabs, Ipads, PDAs has bought a change within the computing world. This has led to the idea of computing to emerge as one of the research hotspots within the computer science world. These days at one particular instance, a user can utilize series of electronic platforms to access information at any place and at any time. The nature of this computing has made it essential to adopt wireless networks to create interconnections as it is practically not feasible to get wired network links everywhere to connect with other devices.

The Wireless Networks dates back from 1970’s and since then the interest have increased manifold due to the innumerable advantages offered by the same and also because of the growing demand of internet availability. Huge growth of computers, smartphones and other hand held devices necessitated the need for ad-hoc networks. In 1972’s, PRNET i.e packet radio networks were used in conjunction with ALOHA. Second generation of ad-hoc networks in 1980’s saw further enhancement of ad-hoc networks. They were implemented as part of SURAN project i.e Survivable Adaptive, Radio Network project. The aim was to have small, low power, low cost devices having efficient protocols for enhances scalability and survivability (Jublin, 1987). 1990’s witnessed the emergence of laptops, and so did the idea of commercial ad-hoc networks was conceived. The term “ad-hoc networks” was adopted by IEEE.11 sub-committee.

MANETs is a technology that consists of wireless mobile nodes. These mobile nodes have the capability to dynamically self-organize themselves in arbitrary and temporary network topologies. Thus individuals and vehicles can be interconnected without a pre-existing communication infrastructure or when the employment of such infrastructure needs wireless extension. Within the mobile Ad hoc network, nodes will directly communicate with all other nodes within their radio range. Whereas the nodes that are not within the direct communication range use intermediate nodes to communicate with one another. In the above two situations, all the nodes that have participated within the communication, forms a wireless network. Thus, this type of wireless network is considered as Mobile Ad hoc network. (Cho et al.,2011)

Figure 1 shows an uncomplicated ad-hoc network with three nodes, namely N1, N2 and N3. N1 and N3 are not within the range of one another, so N2 may be used to forward packets between N1 and N2. In this case, N2 can act as a router and these three nodes together form a mobile ad-hoc network. (Govindan,2012)

Figure 1.

Example of MANET


Some MANETs are restricted to a neighborhood area of wireless devices, whereas others could also be connected to the internet. Eg: a VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Network) is a form of mobile ad hoc network that permits vehicles to communicate with roadside instruments. The vehicles may not have a direct internet connection. The wireless roadside instruments may be connected to the internet, and then these allow the information from the vehicles to be sent over the internet. The vehicle information can also be used to measure live traffic condition. Manets are usually not secure as they are dynamic in nature. Thus, it is essential to be cautious regarding the type of information that is distributed over a MANET. (Adnan, 2012)

Key Terms in this Chapter

SURAN Project: Survivable Adaptive, Radio Network Project.

PRNET: Packet Radio Networks.

InVANETs: Under the category of Vanets, fall intelligent systems called InVanets. These are Intelligent Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks. These employ the techniques of artificial intelligence and its algorithms for seamless and effective communication between vehicles having dynamic mobility.

Pan: Personal Area Network is a network of various devices like laptop, mobile, PDAs within a range of an individual i.e within 10m approximately. These devices of the network are connected with or without wires.

DoS: A Denial of Service (DoS) attack is an attempt to make the network resources unavailable to its intended user. It temporarily or indefinitely suspends/interrupts services of a host connected to the Internet.

Manet VoVoN: Manet providing Voice over Virtual overlay Networks.

VANET: Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. When principles of MANET are applied in domain of vehicles, they form VANETs. A generic term used to define VANETs is inter-vehicle communication (IVC). The vehicles are fitted with sensors. These sensors interact with the sensors of other vehicles or the infrastructure present outside.

RSS: Received Signal Strength is a measurement of the power present in a received radio signal.

Throughput: A measure of number of information units processed by a system in a given amount of time. Another way of defining throughput is the rate of successful message delivery over a communication channel.

Bluetooth: A wireless technology where two or more devices exchange information wirelessly over a short distance. They form a sort of PAN network.

BER: The number of bit errors per unit time. It is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. BER is a unitless performance measure.

Latency: The amount of time it takes for a packet to traverse from input to desired output. It has units of time.

Span: Smart Phone Ad hoc Networks. Spans create peer-to-peer networks by making use of the existing Bluetooth and WiFi features of commercially available smart phones.

iManets: Internet Based Mobile Ad hoc Networks. These are ad-hoc networks that help to link fixed as well as mobile nodes i.e. they link mobile nodes and fixed Internet-gateway nodes.

SNR: Signal to Noise Ratio is a measure to detect the amount of signal in the presence of background noise.

Black Hole Attack: A type of denial-of-service attack in which a router that is supposed to relay packets instead discards them.

Eavesdropping: Unauthorized monitoring of other people’s communications. It can be conducted on ordinary telephone systems, emails, instant messaging or other Internet services. Since eavesdropping activities do not affect the normal operation of network transmission, both the sender and the recipient can hardly notice that the data has been stolen, intercepted or defaced.

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