Mangement of a 3D Visualization Program From Radiological Images in Neuroradiology

Mangement of a 3D Visualization Program From Radiological Images in Neuroradiology

Roberto Domingo Tabernero-Rico, Sonia-Francisca Pozo-González, Alberto Prats-Galino
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8871-0.ch010
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The latest technological advances in postprocessing of images have made possible the generation of three-dimensional (3D) models from 2D radiological images. The use of these models in PDF file allows interaction, providing useful visualization tools and management that facilitate the work and understanding of the anatomical region of the study area. All this is possible from a personal computer without the requirement of a professional workstation. In this chapter, the authors present the characteristics of 3D PDF software with anatomical models of the skull base. Therefore, through the management and development of these new educational contents, introduced as complementary didactic material for the study of anatomy in complex regions, the ability to understand is improved and learning is expedited. This is very important not only in the field of teaching but also in other applications, such as clinical practice and the scientific field, since it allows the use of these contents without the need to compromise patient safety.
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In the biomedical field, three-dimensional (3D) formulations are represented in a multitude of structures (pharmacological chemistry molecules, orthopaedic insoles, biomechanical and anatomical structures, prostheses, brain mapping, tractography...) (Kumar et al., 2008). However, the data has generally been represented in a two-dimensional format, or by projecting 3D images onto a two-dimensional (2.5D) plane. This brings with it an inherent loss of visual information. The main reasons for this are technical problems and lack of experience in handling 3D formulas (Erten & Yılmaz, 2018b; Jyothikiran et al., 2014).

3D technology is often thought of as recent or modern, but it is a technology that is more than 100 years old. However, a few years ago, with the advent of 3D films, interest in it has grown significantly.

From very early on, man has wanted to represent movement in images, achieving it through frames. This is how cinema was born.

Another obsession was that images should be able to represent the three dimensions that make up a real image.

The 3D visualisation techniques applied in medicine are different from the techniques used in photographic or cinematographic imaging. They rely on the ability of powerful computers to create three-dimensional “photographs” from a given set of medical images. By taking multiple consecutive images of a region, sufficient information is obtained about the voxels that make up the image, filling in the “gaps” with algorithms based on information obtained from adjacent images. In such a way that they give a surface image from the sectional images obtained in the radiological studies.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Postprocessing: Post, behind; process, processing or set of operations to which a thing is subjected to elaborate or transform it.

Reformatting: Re- Back to; format, organize a disk or other media according to a specific format of sectors, tracks, etc., so that it is operational.

Segment: Separate or divide a thing into segments.

Digitization: Convert a physical quantity, a text, or an analog signal into a digital representation.

DICOM: Digital imaging and communication on medicine.

Tractography: MRI imaging technique to reveal neural bundles.

Interactive: That allows an interaction, by way of dialogue, between the machine and the user.

Voxel: Minimum processable unit of a three-dimensional matrix. Pixel equivalent in a 2D image.

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