Mapping Sustainable Tourism into Emergency Management Structure to Enhance Humanitarian Networks and Disaster Risk Reduction using Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) Initiatives in Himalayan States: The Global Supply Chain Issues and Strategies

Mapping Sustainable Tourism into Emergency Management Structure to Enhance Humanitarian Networks and Disaster Risk Reduction using Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) Initiatives in Himalayan States: The Global Supply Chain Issues and Strategies

Naveeta Panwar (Doon University, India), Dikshit Uniyal (Doon University, India) and Krishna Singh Rautela (Doon University, India)
Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9720-1.ch007
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Abstract

The overall aim of the paper is to analyze supply chain performance in humanitarian context, in aligning with PPP interventions for Himalayan States. A preliminary Framework for Performance evaluation of private and public actors, with seven constructs has been formulated viz. Mutual Coordination; Risk Management; Organizational Structure; Humanitarian Operational Assessment; Service Quality; Operation Flexibility; Humanitarian Logistics cost has developed for Humanitarian operations in Himalayan region. Five Hypotheses were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The results show that PPP efficacy in humanitarian logistics enhances the sustainability of local economy. Implementation of Public Private Partnership (PPP) as a new strategy in managing disaster, the study suggest that they should complement each other with certain characteristics such as: (1) Mutual Coordination; (2) Shared Risk and Profits/ Benefits; and (3). Organizational Arrangement and it should also support the sustainability of Tourism industry.
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1. Introduction

Mismatch between urbanized growth and adverse climate change pushed the world population to suffer more the action of natural disasters (UN, 2012). In the recent past, the occurrence of natural disaster got drastically increased (400 per year, between 2002-2011, caused numerous physical damages and took 110,000 lives) and the disaster impact 1 is also increases significantly due to complex emergencies and disasters with the average (Guha-Sapir et al., 2013). Figure 1 depicts reported disasters since 1990 to 2013.

Figure 1.

Number of reported disaster and victims (in millions)

(Adopted from: ADSR, 2013).

There is an urgent need to focus on building resilience through disaster preparedness and readiness, improving response and ensuring proper recovery and reconstruction. The existing literature lacks the application of Operation research and Management Sciences, particularly in Logistics Management. The approaches adopted are restricted to the usage of Emergency Management or Humanitarian aids2, at limited levels. From logistics perspective, previous research has restricted their focus on characteristic of network and its ability to fix the damages (save lives, alleviate suffering and maintain and protect human dignity), after disaster occurred. In past researches, there is least discussion on the nature, mode and flow of traffic demand, Post Disaster. Table 1 reflects on types of Disasters, its definition and types.

Table 1.
Natural disaster subgroup definition and classifications
Disaster Subgroup      Definition      Disaster Main Types
GeophysicalEvents originating from solid earthEarthquake, Volcano, Mass Movement(dry)
MeteorologicalEvents caused by short-lived/ small to micro scale atmospheric processes (in the spectrum from minutes to days)Storm
HydrologicalEvents caused by deviations in the normal water cycle and / or overflow of bodies of water caused by wind set-upFlood. Mass Movement (Wet)
ClimatologicalEvents caused by long-lived/ micro to macro scale processes (in the spectrum from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal climate variability)Extreme Temperature, Drought, Wildfire.
BiologicalDisaster caused by the exposure of living organisms to germs and toxic substancesEpidemic, insects infestation, Animal Stampede

(Source: EM-DAT, 2014).

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