Marginalization of Women and Mass Markets

Marginalization of Women and Mass Markets

José G. Hernández R. (Minimax Consultores C.A., Venezuela), María J. García G. (Minimax Consultores C.A., Venezuela) and Gilberto J. Hernández G. (Minimax Consultores C.A., Venezuela)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2347-6.ch004


This chapter relates to gender equality in the free market, particularly the mass market. The objective of this work is to review if the woman is marginalized in the mass market through a decision tree structure. To achieve this overall objective, the integrated-adaptable methodology for the development of decision support system (MIASAD) is used. There are not enough elements to make a generalization, but, from the results obtained with the decision tree structure used in this investigation, it can be seen that there is no marginalization of women in the mass products market. This implies that no additional effort is necessary to minimize the marginalization of women in the mass market. As a consequence, efforts can focus on better segmentation of the female market. Thus, products that are more suitable for each of the sectors found can be generated.
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The strong onslaught of groups that struggle to seek greater female participation; in society; has been increased in recent years. This has achieved, on the one hand, improvements in the participation sought and, on the other hand, that the issue of female participation be addressed from different points of view. This makes the subject of this research, keep a great relevance today.

Female participation is a topic that has been treated for a long time. Already in the decade of the eighties of the last century, Hoyman (1987) conducts a study on female participation in the informal economy and a little later, Psacharopoulos & Tzannatos (1989), based on works from several previous years, highlight some causes of inequality, which exists in the workplace, between men and women, especially in some countries.

In this same sense, to analyze the participation of women in the labor force, in later years are the works of Goldin (1994), who addresses other more specific aspects, Bover & Arellano (1995), who review the case of a particular country, Spain, of Mammen & Paxson (2000), who focus on economic development.

Also analyzing the participation of women, in the informal economy, are the works of Pick, Ross & Dada (2002), focused on South Africa and of Nimrichter (2007), linked to Brazil.

A little more recent Guadarrama (2008) studies the participation of women in a globalized world; while commenting on the existence of feminized professions and masculinized professions. This first issue, of globalization and the participation of women, is found in more recent works such as Akhter & Ward (2016), among others.

By the end of the first decade of the 21st century, there is work of Baba et al. (2010), who review the role of women in vegetable cultivation in India.

Finally, without any doubt, it can be assured that the study of the participation of women in the labor market is an issue that has attracted attention for a long time and from different approaches.

To start commenting on studies, about participation of the women in the labor force, in the second decade of the 21st century, it can mention: Alesina, Giuliano & Nunn (2011), who handle the hypothesis that the low participation of women in some work areas, has its origins in agriculture based on the plow; Amador, Bernal & Peña (2013), who study the increase in the participation of women in Colombia; Hayo & Caris (2013), who analyze in the region of Middle East and North Africa (MENA), some aspects, such as the possible loss of identification, which is given by tradition and religion; Thévenon (2013), who carries out his research from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCDE).

For its part, Verick (2014), emphasizes in its study, that it is not only important to analyze the participation of women in the labor forces, but also the quality of the jobs that they perform must be taken into consideration. Likewise, Cipollone, Patacchini & Vallanti (2014), devote their extensive study to analyze the growth of female participation in 15 countries of the European Union. Somewhat in the same line of work of Hayo & Caris (2013), at least with respect to the region studied, is the work of Verme (2015).

Some authors focus on Asia, Kinoshita & Guo (2015), specifically, in their study, they make comparisons of Japan and Korea, with Norway and Finland; Chatterjee, Murgai & Rama (2015), do it in India, specifically in rural areas and He & Zhu (2015), analyze the case of China and from the perspective of the restriction of generating a second child.

Another work of 2015 is that of Terjesen, Couto & Francisco (2015), who make a study of the influence of women in the top management and for that they analyze institutions from more than forty countries.

A similar line follows the work of Ben-Amar, Chang & McIlkenny (2015), who study the relationship between the participation of women in management positions and environmental aspects.

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