Marketing Strategies of Cultural Institutions in a City Divided  by a Border: The Case Study for the City of Cieszyn-Czech Cieszyn

Marketing Strategies of Cultural Institutions in a City Divided by a Border: The Case Study for the City of Cieszyn-Czech Cieszyn

Łukasz Wróblewski (WSB University, Poland) and Marcin Lis (WSB University, Poland)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2513-5.ch009
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Abstract

In the 21st Century, it is possible to observe a pattern of numerous changes in the sphere of functioning of the cultural institutions also in cities divided by a border. These trends include globalization of culture, development of cultural industries and creative industries, rapid technical and technological growth, occurrence of new cultural management concepts and marketing strategies. Therefore, this chapter presents models of marketing strategies that can be applied in cities divided by a border. Based on individual interviews with 40 experts, four model marketing strategies are proposed which can be used by managers of cultural institutions in cities such as Cieszyn-Czech Cieszyn. Proposed strategies are in relation to specified target markets - residents of a city divided by a border. The practical application aspect of this chapter is evident in the indication of the direction future marketing efforts of cultural institutions should take to improve their market position.
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Introduction

Over the last twenty years, along the borders of member states of the European Union, including the Polish and Czech border, the intensification of various types of activities aimed at supporting cross-border cooperation in the field of culture can be observed. Among other things, these activities serve to blur the borders and divisions between the local communities and to shape their new quality (they should become a place of meetings, and not divisions) (Perkman, 2003; Castanho, Naranjo Gómez, Kurowska-Pysz, 2019; Wróblewski, Kasperek, 2019). On the Polish and Czech border, in particular in a city divided by a border, such as Cieszyn and Czech Cieszyn (Český Těšín), it is expressed in the growing number of cultural events which are being organised, and which are often implemented as part of cross-border cultural projects co-financed from the funds of the European Union (Kurowska-Pysz, 2016; Wróblewski, Dziadzia, Dacko-Pikiewicz, 2018). Nevertheless, this situation poses new challenges for the managers of the cultural institutions of Cieszyn and Czech Cieszyn and requires the implementation of the new marketing strategies. This, however entails taking responsibility for culture, which, on the one hand, requires an even deeper examination of the cultural offer available on both sides of the border (its quality, saturation with artistic content or availability), and on the other hand, is determined by an in-depth analysis of the needs of both Polish and Czech addressees of this offer. Therefore, it seems reasonable to propose model solutions of marketing strategies to cultural institutions, which can become an inherent part of their mission and strategic objectives. An example of such strategies are utility strategies, relating to specific target markets in a city divided by a border such as Cieszyn and Czech Cieszyn. However, to prepare successful marketing strategies in the cultural sector (in cities divided by a border also), there should be a balance between attitudes towards culture, which include the claim that culture has its own inherent value which must be protected at all costs, and the views of people who think that, just like any other form of human activity, culture must pay for itself, and it is therefore essential to take the available audience into account. We must keep in mind that the mission of many cultural institutions (e.g. theaters, operas, museums, and concert halls) is seeking various forms of expression. Therefore, not only concerts and performances which are known to have the support of the broad community are performed (Kolb, 2005; Schroeder, 2005: 1291-1305; Rentschler, Shilbury, 2008: 60-71; Boorsma, Chiaravalloti, 2010: 297-317; Jyrama, Ayvari, 2010: 723-735; Lehman, Wickhman, 2014: 133-141; Dacko-Pikiewicz, Wróblewski, 2017: 17-34). We should also look at the reasons for implementing different marketing strategies in culture with reference to the ongoing lifestyle changes of the consumers of the cultural offer. In addition, an important role is played by the internationalization of the circulation of cultural goods and services, as well as by the problems with introducing products that have been created outside the so-called broadcasting centers (e.g. the Hollywood cluster) into global circulation. At the same time, among the reasons to implement marketing strategies in the cultural sector, the development of information and communication technologies plays an important role, triggering new opportunities for creating and distributing cultural goods and services, and communicating the related values to consumers of culture. Ongoing technological development changes the position of cultural players in the market. Given the fact that marketing is a multi-paradigmatic category, there are specific grounds for the implementation of various marketing strategies by entities in the cross-border cultural sector (Wróblewski, Dacko-Pikiewicz, Cuyler, 2017: 302-314).

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